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Abnormal Psych Lec 4.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Abnormal Psych Lec 4 READ YOUR TEXTBOOK BAUD  Reliability and validity in assessment o Reliability  Definition: The consistency of measurement.  Test-retest reliability  Giving a person once and then again at a future date, will you get the same result?  It is dynamic; sometimes results will change over time.  IQ has a high test-retest reliability  Alternate-form reliability  A different version of the test is important so there are no practise effects.  Internal consistency reliability  Make sure that all the items on the test are measuring the same thing. o Validity  Definition: Reliability is a necessary component of validity.  Content validity  We want to sample to content of the disorder  To have a strong content validity, a test should measure every aspect of the disorder  Criterion validity  When we develop a test we need to make sure it measures what we say it measures.  Ex: administering 2 different kind of tests that show patient is depressed  Aka convergent validity  Predictive validity: if a person fills out depression test and gets a certain score, is the person actually depressed?  Construct validity  Psychological disorders are constructs, not tangible things.  Comparing scores of people with anxiety and without anxiety and comparing scores o Do this in order to demonstrate that there is a difference, and that this measure is actually measuring this construct.  Psychological assessment o Clinical interviews  Characteristics of clinical interviews  What questions do you feel would be important to ask a patient?  Defined by what paradigm the interviewer is working from.  Structured/semi structured interviews  Structured interview follows a structure  Semi structured interview doesn’t systematically follow everything. Sort of jump around as things come up.  Behavioral observations  These can almost be diagnostic.  Limitations  Are patients necessarily telling the truth? o Negative impression management: are they exaggerating? Are they faking? o Embedded validity indexes in tests: lie scales.  Patients without insight o Ex of masturbating patient: he didn’t believe he had any problems.  Positive impression management: not willing to admit to any minor faults or symptoms that may be present.  Psychological tests o Screening measures  Beck scales  Typically checklists of symptoms that a patient may or may not have  Someone could be elevated in certain measures for non-clinical measures  Screening measures are very subjective o Personality inventories  Omnibus measures  Extensive measures that attempt to cover a wide range of clinical psychopathology  Typically self-report measures  Contain clinical measures and validity measures o Projective techniques  Projective hypothesis  The notion that highly unstructured stimuli are necessary to bypass defenses in order to reveal unconscious motives and conflicts.  Pojective Techniques  Tests of personality that involve use of unstructured stimulus materials. Use of such materials maximizes the role of internal factors such as emotions and motives in perceptions  Psychoanalytical paradigm use this  Inkblot tests  Thematic apreption tests  Look at a picture and tell us a story  Psychoanalyst makes assumptions about the patient projecting their story on the story they are telling o Specific psychological inventories  Hundreds of inventories of disorders, and even symptom
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