Class Notes (835,394)
Canada (509,154)
Psychology (7,782)
PSYB32H3 (614)


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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chpt 3: Classification and Diagnosis - diagnosis classified correctly before treatments - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM - 4th edition ( DSM-IV) Brief History of Classification - people recognized illnesses need treatments + need for classification Early effort at Classification - UK medico-psychological Association: did classification scheme but it was never adopted - US adopted UK: but consistency was lacking Development of the who and DSM System World Health Organization (WHO) = mental disorder as cause of death mental disorders section not widely accepted DSM II = but actual behavior and symptoms not specified Allen Frances: DSM IV = in this edition changes were explicit = supported by data Criticism of DSM: - groups with divergent P.O.V not allowed to speak - deficiencies in which diagnosis are done - “not book of truth” not embraced by everyone - some of the DSM categories really exist and hypothetical constructs may not exist Current Diagnostic System of American Psychiatric Association - mental disorder: significant behavioral or psychological syndrome = occurs in person and is associated with impairment in one or more of important areas of function + risk suffering pain, disability - Not: expectable + culturally sanctioned response = death of loved one Five Dimensions of Classification - Multiaxial classification: individual rated on 5 separate dimensions: - 5 axis - Axis I: all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation - Axis II; personality + mental retardation Chpt 3: Classification and Diagnosis - Axis III: General Medical Conditions - Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems - Axis V: current level of functioning - Axis I and II: classification of abnormal behavior; separated to ignore presence of long term behavior; client might have Axis I and II disorder - Axis III: any general medical disorder believed to be relevant to mental disorder - person with heart condition is diagnosed with depression - Axis V: current level of functioning: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and sum- mary of other axis Diagnostic Categories - many of them DSM indicates disorder due medical condition or substance abuse Disorder usually First Diagnosed in Infancy - child with separation anxiety disorder: excessive anxiety about being away from home/parents - children with conduct disorder: repeated violate social norms - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: difficulty sustaining attention and unable to con- trol activity - Mental Retardation (Axis II) subnormal intellectual functioning + deficits in adaptive functioning - Pervasive Developmental Disorder: autistic disorder = individual problems in acquiring communication skills and relating to others - Learning Disorder = no acquisition of speech, reading, arithmetic, and writing skills Substance Related Disorders - ingestion of some substance: alcohol, opiates, cocaine, and amphetamines to change behavior enough to impair social functioning - can’t stop ingesting it + withdrawal symptoms if they stop - Axis I Schizophrenia - contact reality = faulty - language + communication disordered = shift from one subject to another = difficult to understand Chpt 3: Classification and Diagnosis - delusions: thoughts placed in heads - hallucinations: hearing voices come from outside themselves - emotions: blunted, flattened: social relationships deteriorate Mood Disorders : moods high or low - major depressive disorder: person sad/discouraged = loose weight = energy = suicidal thoughs - mania: too euphoric, irritable, active than usual, distractible, unrealistic high self-es- teem - bipolar disorder: episodes mani or both mania and depression Anxiety Disorders : irrational fear - phobia: fear objects or situations = they must avoid = even if know fear unreasonable - panic disorder: person sudden attacks of apprehension, so upsetting = he tremble shake, dizzy, trouble breathing. Panic disorders accompanied by agoraphobia: person fearful of leaving familiar conditions - generalized anxiety disorder: fear so pervasive, persistent = uncontrollable = worry constantly, feel generally on edge and are tired easily - obsessive compulsive disorder: persistent obsessions or compulsions - obsession: recurrent thought, idea dominates person’s consciousness - compulsion: urge to perform stereotyped act = purpose: warding off impending feared situation - Attempts resist compulsion create so much tension = person yields to it - resist compulsion = tension = person yields to it - post traumatic stress disorder: anxiety + emotional numbness after traumatic event - painful recollection by day + bad dreams at night = difficult to concentrate and feel de- tached from others - Acute Stress Disorder: similar to post traumatic but symptoms do not last that long Somatoform Disorders: no known physiological cause but serve psychological purpose - somatization disorder: long history of physical complains taken medicine or consulted doctor - conversion disorder: loss of motor or sensory function: paralysis or blindness - pain disorder: suffer from severe and prolonged pain - hypochondriasis: misinterpretation of minor physical symptoms as serious illness Chpt 3: Classification and Diagnosis - body dysmorphic disorder: preoccupied with imagined defect in appearance Dissociative Disorder: psychological dissociation = sudden alteration in consciousness which affects memory and identity - dissociative amnesia: forget whole past or lose memory of particular time period - DID: 2 or more distinct personalities - dissociative fugue: suddenly and unexpectedly travels to new locale, starts new life, cannot remember previous identity - depersonalization disorder: severe feeling of self-estrangement or unreality Sexual and Gender Identity - dyssomnias: sleep is disturbed in amount, person is not able to maintain sleep or sleeps too much quality (does not feel rested after sleep), or timing (person experiences inability to sleeping during conventional sleeping time) - parasomnia: unusual event occurs during sleep Eating Disorders - anorexia nevrosa: person avoids eating and becomes emaciated, usually because of intense far of becoming fat - bulimia nervosa: frequent episodes of binge eating + compensatory activities = vomit- ing + laxatives Factitious Disorder - intentionally complain physical symptoms b/c psychological need to assume role of sick person Adjustment Disorders: develop emotional/behavioral symptoms as a result of major life stressor - symptoms don’t meet criteria for any other Axis I disorder - depressed/anxious mood = not significant to warrant diagnosis of anxiety or depres- sion Impulse control Disorder: person behavior is inappropriate - intermittent explosive disorder: person has episodes of violent behavior result from de- struction of property of another person - kleptomania: person steals repeatedly, but not for monetary value Chpt 3: Classification and Diagnosis - pyromania: person sets fire + pleasure of deriving it - pathological gambling: person preoccupied with gambling; unable to stop; gambles to escape problems - thrichotillomania: person cannot stop pluck his hair = hair loss Personality Disorders: defined as enduring, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of behaviour and inner experience - schizoid personality disorder: person aloof, has few friends, indifferent praise and criti- cism - narcissistic personality disorder: sense of self-importance, fantasize about great, re- quires constant attention, exploit others - Anti-Social personality disorder: Conduct disorder before person reaches 15, running away, delinquency, belligerence - adulthood: indifferent holding a job, responsible partner, planning future, staying on right side of the of law - ASD = psychopathology Other Condition may be focus of clinical attention: all encompassing not mental disorder - mental illness exacerbated by psychological conditions = psychological factors affect- ing physical condition - academic problem - anti-social behavior ( professional thieves ) - malingering ( faking physical) - relational problem ( poor relationship with sibling) - occupational problem - physical abuse - bereavement - religious problem - phase of life problem Pathological Gambling in Canada - pathological gambling: persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that distrupts f
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