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Lecture 4

PSYB32 - Lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

PSYB32 – Lecture 4 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 2 – Reliability and Validity in Assessment - Reliability o Consistency of measurement o Test-retest reliability  Dynamic; depends on situation of test; i.e. IQ is a stable measure that has good test-retest reliability  If we give the same test more than once, will we get the same results?  If you get the same results, test is reliable o Alternate form reliability  Give a different version of the test to avoid practice effects (when the subject remembers answers of test from the first time) o Internal consistency reliability  Make sure all items on the test are measuring the same thing - Validity o If test is not reliable, there will be no validity; reliability is a necessary component of validity o Content validity  to measure something, it would only be valid if you measure as much of the construct as possible; sample content of disorder  i.e. should be measuring all symptoms associated with a disorder o Criterion validity  Test has to measure what we say it measurse o Construct validity  Example: if we demonstrate difference between groups (anxiety, non-anxiety), through test scores (for ex.) then we know that we are measuring a construct (that we can’t touch)  Psychological disorders are constructs; not tangible things Slide 3 – Psychological Assessment - Clinical interviews o Questions asked are defined by many different variables, mainly paradigm interviewer is working in o Limitations: is the client telling the truth?; negative and positive impression management; person has no insight o Characteristics of clinical interviews  What questions do you feel would be important to ask? o Structured/semi-structured interviews o Behavioural observations  Can be quite diagnostic Slide 5 – Psychological Screening Measures - Typically checkings of symptoms that a patient may have - Ex. Beck Anxiety Inventory - Person could be elevated in screening measures for non-clinical reasons - Is the person filling out the inventory truthfully? Slide 9 – Personality Assessment Inventory - PAI is a 344 item self-report questionnaire that attempts to understand and individual’s personality traits and characteristics - Measures many kinds of psychopathology - Scores above 70 are considered abnormalities - Renders diagnostic considerations based on DSM-IV - Diagnostic considerations involve axis I and II disorders - Provides clinical and validity scales - Has screening measure to make assessment more efficient Slide 10 – Interpreting test results - Normative comparison – all tests are normed/standardized in order to have something to compare Slide 17 – Rorschach Inkblot Test - Projective test in which the subject is instructed to interpret a series of 10 inkblots (monochromatic and coloured) reproduced on cards - Not going to have the same answer every time; poor reliability, hard to score, try to score in terms of commonality of response Slide 22 – Intelligence Tests - Highly reliable - Probably won’t change much from now and 10 years from now - Useful because when they are combined with achievement type tests, can help diagnose learning
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