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Lecture 2

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB20- Lecture# 2:  Scientific theory  Public announcement of what a scientist believes to be true in their specialized area of study  Theories  not all theories are good o What makes a theory good? 1) Parsimony- should be precise but should also describe a large number of observations 2) Falsifiability- allows you to disprove theory 3) Heuristic Value- allows you to apply theory outside purpose of development and discover new theories  Themes/ controversies in developmental psych: b. Innate purity vs. original sin a. Tabula rasa  blank slate (children born pure or evil or blank)  Nature vs. Nurture (fundamental issue) a. Human beings (heredity shaped by life experiences and environmental factors) b. What is the nature of the interaction of both nature and nurture?  Child’s own role in own development (Active vs. Passive)  Continuity (how continuous is development) o Continuous: curve smooth o Discontinuous: curve not smooth (looks like staircase)  Quantitative vs. Qualitative change  Quantitative: continuous, change in degree (ex: age ↑, height ↑)  Qualitative change: discontinuous (change in kind) organism fundamentally different (ex: tadpole  frogs & caterpillars  butterfly) o Connectedness of development  What is the connectiveness of early and later childhood development  Continuous = connected  violent toddler  teenage delinquent  Discontinuous = not connected  Child smiles at everyone, teenager = weariness of strangers)  Similarity vs. differences o Universal developmental changes:  Similarities: language development & sexual maturity @ same age period  Differences: vary culture to culture b/w individuals  Ex: literacy development Theories of child development: 1. Psychoanalytic viewpoint o Freud’s psychosexual development o Erick Erikson (Freud’s student) o Freud = psychiatrist (Victorian era)  Formulated his theories from his observations  Seeking to help emotionallu disturbs adults  Hit the root (traumatic events from an adult’s childhood)  Wanted to know subconscious motives o Freud divided personality into 3 parts:  ID- legislator (fill basic needs)  hungry = food  Ego- conscious/ rationale part (controlled ID)  Superego- ego solutions had to fit w/ ID’s needs  Emerges (3-6 years)  Develops through interactions w/ parents  Stages of development (Freud)  Sexual impulses born w/ child (libito)  Five stages child passes through: 1) Oral Stage  Mouth id physical focus  Activity w/ mouth gave child pleasure  Birth- 1 year  How child resolves this develops their personality 2) Anal Stage  Ability to go to washroom pleasurable for child  Experiences conflict (toilet training)  Parent imposes structure (holding it in)  Child resolves conflict in own way (personality) 3) The Phallic Stage  Begins desires for the opposite sex parent  Oedipus complex (Greek myth: child killed father and married mother  Atticus)  Dad would be mad at son if he desires his wife (the mom)  feats dad, fear castration  Suppresses their desire  Deals with it by identifying with father and by imitating them  Girls have the same problem (in relation to father) but can’t be castrated  Feelings gradually go away 4) Latency Period  6-12 years  libido goes to sleep 5) The Genital Period  12 years & ↑  Romantic interests (desire to develop friendships)  Freud’s credit  unconscious motivations/ unconscious desires  Freud’s theory of development lacked observations and studies on children (doesn’t make predictions)  Except females= weaker moral development  weaker superego  No evidence of this though  If boys don’t have father figure at home during phallic stage , the phallic stage development is not the same.  Therefore child’s development should be different  Boys w.o dads = less manly  Don’t know of any evidence of this, could be multiple reasons (ex: nobody to identify with)  Erik Erikson o Development theory: psycho-social development o Conflicts child though o Development= life-long process  Doesn’t stop at sexual maturation  Idea (stereotype) that masculine guys are more liked by other guys 2. Learning theory (Behaviourism)  More scientific b/c psychoanalytic theory not visual  Things that we can directly observe= stimuli and responses to stimuli  John B Wattson: o Fascinated by Pablo’s animal theories o Wanted to know if Classical Conditioning could be applied to children (Albert, little boy)  White rat and sharp sound everytime its shown.  Eventually albert fears soft white rat.  Consistent with Locke’s theory (blank slate)  Environment shapes child  Can shape child any way we want o Continuous  children just keep learning though many associat
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