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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB20- Lecture 3  First design to test development: 1. Longitudinal Design  This design requires an immense amount of commitment on the part of the subject/participant  Possible that subjects are not representative of population at large. o Subjects present may have more time on their hands or may be more educated/ respect science more o Participants will and can drop out for a number of reasons o Problem with repeated testing (longitudinal design involves repeated testing with similar tests, therefore, may do better as a result of learning from their mistakes the first time. o Cohort: cultural-historical effects  Ex: children born around the same time are influenced by cultural and historical events at that time which may affect development  so not too conclusive) o Longitudinal design only tests one cohort at a time 2. Cross-sectional design:  Different groups of children of different ages  This test is much less expensive and less time consuming as well  Subjects only measured once  Problems  conceptual problem (Doesn’t provide evidence of change in a particular individual but rather across groups of individuals) o Only estimated developmental change o Assume their difference stem from age, but that may not be the case (fundamentally different individuals)  Number of reasons as to why/ how individuals are different o Cohort effect  compare 5 year olds with 15 year old with 20 year olds on personalities  problematic because of the year they were born in (different cultural/historical facts in the span of 10-15 years) o Question of where to draw the line: 2 months vs. 8 month old same cohort or different cohort?  Results have to be the same regardless of what study is chosen (only for the most part, ex of not= study of intellectual level) 3. Sequential Design  Both cross and longitudinal design at same time  Ex: racial attitudes in children o What age is most effective to introduce program to reduce racism o Long term effects of test? o Initial cross-sectional test o Longitudinal tests (bring kids back again) o 2 cross-test  Saves time and have immediate cross test results to discuss  Can talk about cohort groups and bring in c
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