-1PSYB20 Lecture 2
à Developmental theory: (theory - organize our knowledge - helps us understand a broad
range of observations. What makes a theory good? à 1. Parsimony: concise, yet able to
explain a wide range of phenomena. 2. Falsifiability: capable of making explicit
Question and controversies about human development:
à Assumptions about human nature:
- Innate purity versus original sin
- Tabula rasa - child is not good or evil, blank slate
à Nature versus Nurture:
-how do the two combine
àActivity versus passivity:
- what role does the child play in his or her own development?Are they a passive
à Continuity of development:
-- how connected is development?
- are there stages in development? Or is it more continuous? Development process occurs
in small steps, gradual growth.
- Discontinuous development?
-occurs in steps
--- Quantitative versus qualitative change?
- quant: changes in degree.As you get older, you get taller.
- qualitative - changes in kind. Tadpole to a frog. Caterpillar to butterfly
--- connectedness of development
- how much of a relationship is there between early development attributes and later ones?
Ex: toddler how is aggressive, are they also aggressive when they grow up?
OR earlier behaviour is unrelated to later behaviour. Infants will smile at anyone, then
around 12-18 months, they stop smiling at everyone.
--- Similarity versus differences
- are the changes the same or are they different, across different cultures, areas, person to
person. How universal is development?
Psychoanalytic Viewpoint: -- Sigmund Freud - psychosexual development:
How did parents manage the child sex drives
The id - legislator of the personality. Basic needs.
The ego - executive of the personality. Rationale, conscious part. Direct the ids impluses.
The superego - make sure the ego solutions fit with the internalized moral presets (judicial
branch of the personality)
The theory of psychosexual development?
-- The oral stages (birth-1year)
-- The anal stage (1-3 years) [conflict: toilet training]
-- The phallic stage (3-6 years) - The Oedipus complex = little boys have a sexual desire for
their mothers. Castration anxiety- fear becomes too complex so they suppress their desires
and start acting like their father
-- Latency period (6-12 years)
-- The genital stage (12 years on)
à Freud was the 1 individual to say that humans have unconscious motivations.
- also to say early experiences play a role in the nature of later development and behavior
- frued didn’t look at children. It is difficult to look at ways to study children from this
psychoanalytic viewpoint (girls have weaker superegos than boys, girls should show
weaker moral levels - but there is no evidence that supports this)
- if boys don’t have a father figure at home during the phallic stage, then the identification
process with his dad will not work. There isn’t much need to resolve the complex, so the
nature of the childs development should be different if