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Lecture 4

Child Psychology Lecture 4.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

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Child Psychology Lecture 4 o Perceptual development process by which we gain knowledge of environment; it directly focuses on visual acuity, color perception, auditory localization, perception of objects, and intermodal perception  Behaviors that allow for doing research with infants: a. Engage in exploratory behavior (manually or orally) b. Preference for novel stimuli o Localization techniques are straight forward – present the stimulus and then measure exploratory behavior 1. Orienting response – turning the body or shifting gaze, tells us infants perceive something different or there  Present infant with stimulus  Measure the exploratory behavior towards the stimulus  Can include body turning, head turning, eye gaze 2. Visual localization – present target and look to see if infant perceives target  Present the visual target  Look to see if they try to fixate the target  Findings using localization technique  This suggests that infant is actively exploring the world 3. Auditory localization – present a sound source and view localization  Present auditory target  Look to see if they try to fixate the target  Findings using localization technique  Another form of orienting response  Extremely early in life (first day or two infants will try to localize auditory stimulus) o Habituation/Dishabituation technique – present infant stimulus repeatedly and we measure response to the stimulus and once they get used and bored to it we present a new stimulus and then see how they react to the new stimulus  New stimuli and will measure infants renewed interests, if they perceive difference with test stimulus will show renewed interest  Can measure for infant discrimination a. Fixed trials version: present infant with a preset number of exposure to stimulus, then present test stimuli for set number of exposures  Different levels of interest in participants may alter findings b. Infant control version: present stimulus and measure attention, when infant stops attending for set time, take stimulus away (1 trail), repeat procedure until attention drops below a preset criterion, then present test stimuli for preset number of exposures  Infants control the length of the trails  Different levels of interest don’t interfere with habituation -- interest of stimulus can be measured since same relative interest  Absolute number of stimuli is going to differ for each child c. Measures of infant attention: cardiac deceleration (avg number of heart beats – slowing =attention), visual fixation (amount of time looking – increased looking = attention), and non-nutritive sucking (sucking pressure on stimulus) o Operant condition technique – train infant to make response to stimulus more often done with auditory stimulus  Show stimulus A, reinforce infants turning their head to look at target  Test for generalization of response by presenting a new stimulus  Show stimulus B, look at whether infant makes trained response to new stimulus  The number of times
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