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PSYB20 - Lecture 1.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 – Lecture 1 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 2 – Development and the Developmental Sciences - What is development? o Development involves the systematic changes that occur in individuals between the moment of conception and the moment of death.  Systematic changes implies that development changes are somehow orderly; distinguishes between real changes (i.e. a haircut) and developmental changes - What is the science of development? o Developmental science versus developmental sciences o Interdisciplinary nature of the study of development Slide 3 – Child Development in Historical Perspective - Childhood in Medieval Times (6 - 15 centuries) o The view of children  Painters would depict children playing games, loose clothing  15 century – writings on how to raise children, laws recognizing that children may need protection began to establish, as well as the awareness of children being vulnerable beings o The contradictory nature of childhood  Childhood was viewed as a separate period of life, different relative to adults  Teenagers were seen as not fully matured  Modern society views childhood as an extremely important part of life, children do not have responsibilities of citizenship - Childhood in the Reformation (16 – century) o The influence of the Puritans  Presented a negative view of childhood and children  Children = evil, and were born evil  As the Puritans migrated to the US, they took with them the belief that a child‟s soul was tainted and he was born with “original sin” o The idea of “original sin”  Idea that children were born evil  The role of a parent was to civilize and restrain children from following their evil inclinations  Recommended harsh measures for parents to take in raising their children  Puritans later began to adopt a more moderate view on child rearing – recognized that they needed to teach the child right from wrong - Contemporary thoughts in child development have formed from centuries of theories - We have to return to earlier theories to understand the current - In religious texts, children were pure, innocent, but at the same time, children were talked about as evil, possessed, and in need of purification th - 17 century – in new philosophies, childhood was viewed much more humanely Slide 4 – Philosophical Roots of Human Development - John Locke and the British Empiricists o Rejected concept of innate ideas  i.e. child was not born evil o Mind of infant as a Tabula Rasa  idea that a child was born with nothing; „blank slate‟  „Tabula Rasa‟ led to the importance of nurture/environment o Knowledge gained through experiences  Children obtained all of their knowledge by experience  Experience shaped their personality  Parents could mold their child  Locke emphasized the use of praise and reward for getting children to do something rather than punishment, opposed physical punishment  During the time when beating in school was active, Locke signalled a change was needed, a change to compassion o Two important conceptual points
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