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Lecture 2

PSYB20 Lecture 2 -

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

19.12.09 PSYB20 Lecture 2 -->nature of childhood in various times -->historical context that led us up to discussion of theoretical approaches Define terms: -developmental theory: describe explain aspect of our experience -scientific theory: public pronouncement of hypothesis -organize thinking about broad range of topics/observations 3 characteristics of a good theory (principles): 1. Parsimony -concise yet able to explain wide range of phenomenon is better than more principles but same number of obstacles 2. Falsifiability -capable of makine eplicit predictions about future events -allows you o test the theory; confirm or disconfirm 3. Heuristic Value -does not limit you to only the situation for which it was devised -allows you to make predictions -apply theory outside where it was designed Issues/Themes/Controversies in Developmental Psychology -->different theoretical approaches to problems 1. Assumptions about human nature Are children inherently good or evil? -->Purity of Crusoes work - children being born good -->Puritan - original sin -Tabula Rasa - blank slate 2. Nature vs Nurture -shaped by environment and the experiences they undergo as they age -extremes on either side: environment vs. genetic disposition -gene and environment interact in shaping development -clearly they will interact; less about product nature and nurture -but how do the two combine? 3. Activity vs. Passivity -did the child play a role? -their contribution to own development 4. Continuous and discontinuous Nature of whether there are stages of development or is development more continuous? Continuous -What we see and think is an additive process -small steps; gradual growth Quantiative change -in degree continuous -run faster, grow taller as you age -change in amount of what you have; add more height Discontinuous -depends on type of growth curve -jump up to different levels Qualatative change -organism is fundamentally different than before -tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly Connectedness of development -early age relative to later time in life -what are the connections? -does that toddler grow into aggressive Discontinuous -infants like to smile -around 12-18 months of age they stop smiling, fearful of people they dont know -unrelated and replaced by weariness of strangers but goes away Similarities vs Differences -are the changes we experience universal? are they similar across cultures/areas/places/person- person How universal is development? Universal developmental change: -acquire language 13-14 months of age -early adolescent Vary across people/cultures: -mathematical reasoning, literacy ----------------------------------Theories of Child Development Psychoanalylical Perspective -children move through series of stages in which they confront conflicts of biological drive and social -affects development; determine nature and structure of personality Sigmund Freud -lived at turn of the century; Victorian; Vienna and England -formulated theory through mentally disturbed patients -seeking emotionally troubled adults -having adults talk about traumatic/painful events during childhood and life -attempting to uncover unconcious motivations -from what he discovered: Psychosexual Development -parents managed sexual drives early in the years -critical component of personality and behaviour development -ID - legistlator;basic needs;baby/EGO - executive; rational;direct ID impulses;year or 2/SUPEREGO - moral judicial branch } Theory of development: What are the stages? During childhood -sexual impulses called Libido -different parts of the body at different ages creating conflicts 5 Stages - libido focused on different parts 1. Oral - mouth gave pleasure (birth-1year) -sucking, biting, spitting *prior no one talked about childhood with major impact in life; one of the first individuals 2. Anal - (1-3years) -ability to peepee and poopoo -toilet training; impose structure on child’s behaviour 3. Phallic (3-6) -genitals become interesting -Oedipus complex: married mother and killed father; an incestuous desire for mother; dad is more powerful would punish the boy; castration anxiety; fear is so intense suppress desire for mother; begin to identify and immulate their father as a means of dealing with Oedipus complex -Electra complex: not as intense because little girls cannot be castrated; their resolution is not as strong as boys; fades away slowly; implication: process of identification with same sex parent is not as strong; one of these consequences is the development of the SUPEREGO -Freud predicts women will have weaker superego than men because less process of Latency 6-12 -Libido goes to sleep Genital Stage 12+ -reactivation; romance; more appropriate individuals; goes on to develop Credits: -suggest much of human behaviour is from unconcious behaviour -try to uncover what these motivations were -largely driven by drives, wants, needs -first to give major role of early experiences having impact on later personality -most psychologist would agree is largely true in the nature of later development Criticisms: 1. Overemphasis on sex/drive/feelings in personality and development -->historical context: derived from patients who were women in 19th century victorian Europe; sexually repressed time especially for women 2. Bias in participants -not applicable to a number of cultures -only one particular sample 3. Based on lack of observation of children -difficult to study children from this viewpoint -girls have weaker superegos than boys - show weaker moral development with no evidence -difficult to say girls understanding is not as sophisticated -boys have no father figure during Phallic Stage; identification process wont actually work the same; no resolution as Oedipus complex; not as much need/no one to identify with if father figure is absent > some support; boys without male role model appear less masculine; direct result because no male figure to relate with Erik Erickson Psychosocial Development -Expanded on notion of conflicts however not as focused on the nature of sex and sexual tensions that occurred -Talked about development in terms of social relationships/interpersonal factors -nature of resolution from later personality -8 different stages with conflicts (covered in textbook) -goes into adulthood***** -provides us with the notion that development does not stop and goes on -first individual to have lifespan development Generalities: -clearly no longer plays an important role in mainstream development -isolated with the rest of the field -other ideas difficult to test; nevertheless Erikson has important appeal -psychosocial conflict captures important characteristics -still thought about at different times --------------------Learning Theory/Behaviorism -directly observable events -can not see an anal stage or oedipus -observe stimuli and responses to stimuli North american psychologist concerned with the idea of: Stimulus and Response; to create an objective science of psychology John B. Watson -inspired by Pavlov: animals could associate neutral stimulus with reflexive response -Classical Conditioning-->applied to children? ex. Little Albert -conditioned to fear a neutral stimulus; soft white rat -sharp loud sound; began to fear soft white rat -infants can learn to associate neutral stimuli with others -learn through classical conditioning **consistent with John Locke - Tabula Rasa : shapes child through association; ability to shape child any way we want through these processes **continuous unlike Freud -accumulation of stimulus response; more associations through # strength B.F Skinner -Operant conditioning: structured by nature of the rewards and consequences that the bahevious engendered -increased by following it with a reinforcer -increase behaviour -googoogaga gets a big kiss/smile -reinforces behaviour -behaviour shaped through reinforcers or decreased through punishment by withholding privlegdes to decrease -baby will stop because theyve been punished -operant condition became extremely and widely established principle -some form of conditioning/learning theory involved in developmental psychology Other approaches/extension: Albert Bandura -Social Learning Theory -importance of modeling and observational learning as fundamental procceses for the child -baby sees behaviours learn to do beaviours; no need for reinforcement through observation -this view bringing into important modelling an extremely important way for child to learn new behaviours that are not directly reinforced (some other means) -much greated emphasis on the role of cognitive factors -talks about socio-cognitive learning theory: -attempt to recognize that not simply reinforcement/modelling -thinking cognitive creatures think about many situations and able to enforce rules -ability to reason; children develop personalized standards -self efficacy; shape own behaviour through own beliefs and thoughts -how to work through a problem; see themselve as high achieving; selective different people to be models -social and cognitive characteristics Evaluation: Credits: Behaviourism/Learning theory: -major impact on practices/notions on child development -still around today ex. Behaviour Mod in psychotherapy (procedurces to eliminate negative behaviours and increase those desired) -extremely effective for aggressive behaviour, language delay, dealing with time management, anxiety, nail biting etc Criticisms: -offers too narrow a view of human development -continues to downplay importa
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