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PSYB32 Lec 3 Sept 25 2012.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 – Lecture 3 – September 25 2012  Classification and Diagnosis  Nothing statistical about the DSM  Text used to formulate or render a diagnosis  Importance of DSM – (1) in order to prescribe the right treatment. (2) It allows us to communicate efficiently and increases reliability of the diagnosis (inter rater reliability) (3) Differential diagnosis. (4) Allows researchers to find out more about these disorders.  Syndrome – constellation of symptoms that typically occur together. No one specific symptom constitutes a psychological disorder.  Psychological impairment – anxiety  Behavioural impairment – visible behaviour  Important – conduct disorder – e.g. child violating social norms, getting in trouble with the law at a young age -- needs to be present in order to diagnose something like anti-social personality disorder  Substance Related Disorders – it only becomes a formal diagnosis when the substance abuse or dependence results in behaviour that is severe enough to interfere with their daily living and functioning e.g. no longer able to meet the demands of their job, has got them in trouble with the law, marital problems.  Schizophrenia – important term to remember – these are people who have lost touch with reality, particularly when their positive symptoms are present.  Positive symptom – added behaviour e.g. delusion or hallucination  Negative symptom – removed behaviour e.g. lack of motivation, lack of being able to find pleasure, lack of the ability to speak and generate words, lack of emotion (flat affect)  Mood disorders – know major ones  Major depressive disorder – suicidal tendencies, lack of motivation, loss of appetite, hopelessness, panic attacks, sadness  Co-morbidity – presence of more than one disorder  Commonly, patients may have co-morbid disorders  Mania – unrealistic expectations, impossible goals/ambitions, still grounded in reality though unlike schizophrenics  Bi-Polar disorder – lows of depression and highs of mania  Anxiety disorders – most common  Phobia – irrational, debilitating  Panic disorder – like having a heart attack, feel like you have no control over the environment, tremors, heart racing, perspiration  Agoraphobia – fear of leaving your home because you fear you’re going to have a panic attack  Generalized Anxiety Disorder – a constant worry that is all encompassing – worried and stressed about everything, typically grounded in irrational thoughts, always worried that something bad is going to happen to you or someone you care for, constant state of stress  Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – an obsession is a recurrent thought or idea or image that continuously dominates a person’s consciousness, anxiety,  Compulsion – urge to perform a stereotyped act with the impossible purpose of distinguishing the anxiety from the obsession.  Stress – something we worry about  PTSD – feeling a constellation of symptoms after a traumatic event, depression, flashbacks, fear of recurrence of the event, anxiety  The psychologist, or therapist or clinician is not allowed to place a value judgement on the traumatic event (even if the event would seem trivial)  Chronic – recurring  Somatoform disorders – no known physiological cause  Somatization – patient with a lot of physical complaints, has visited doctor numerous times with different complaints, no physiological cause  Conversion disorder – neurological complaints with no physiological cause  Person may also have anxiety and depression  Hypochondriasis – reading symptoms and thinking you have that disorder or disease etc.  Dissociative Disorders – least common disorders, we don’t know a lot about them. Only have case studies. It is a psychological dissociation or a sudden alteration in consciousness that affects memory or identity.  Dissociative amnesia – Temporarily or transiently has no memory for an event. No physiological e
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