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Lecture 4

Abnormal Psych - Lecture 4.doc

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Connie Boudens

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Lecture 4: Classical Assessment Procedures Reliability and Validity inAssessment  psychologists – able to test! - ppl rely more and more on these ppl bc of the tests we can employ - clinical interview (psychiatrist)AND psychological testing - if just do clinical interview – can have biases  Reliability: consistency of measurement - when give a measure does it consistency measure the same thing... - test retest reliability: if do psychological test once, then do it again later, will you get the same result – if you do, = reliable test – does not work for all psychological test (ex if give treatment at time 1 for mood – results during time 2 would not be the same -> reliability would not be important) – its dynamic – not all tests have to be – for IQ = have high test retest reliability - alternate-form reliability: sometimes important to have test – have different versions of a test so they do not memorize the answers; no practice effects – two forms give you the same result - internal consistency reliability: when have test measure, want to make sure all items on test are measuring the same thing – split test in half and want to make sure that the person who is filling it out; filling out in a consistent manner  Validity: if test is not reliable = NO validity – reliability is a necessary component of validity - content validity: if measure something – only valid if we measured as much of the construct that exists – ex if give depression inventory (how appetite, sex drive?) -> this is not all what constructs depression! Must have all symptoms for depression for it to have content validity - criterion validity: the test must measure what it says it measures – ex give group patients two tests -> and have to show high on both tests – aka convergent validity (results on the test converge on those that measure depression too), predictive validity-> if person fills it out and gets a score – in the real life – do they look depressed? - construct validity: psychological disorders are constructs not tangible things (something we have defined), take patients who have anxiety and compare their scores to those who do not have anxiety – expect diff between groups -> know that the measure is measuring the construct that we cant touch called anxiety PsychologicalAssessment Clinical interview  questions based on what paradigm the interviewer is working from (ex neuropsychologists would ask if the disorder runs in your family, using medications, any injury.... - working form bio paradigm) – psychoanalyst (focus on childhood, dreams...)  may use structured or semi structured interview - structured: skid - follow questions one after other - semi structured: touch major domains but does not systematically follow everything  behavioural observations - facial expressions – flat affect? - these observations can be diagnostic  limitations of clinical interviews - are they telling the truth ? Is there any evidence of negative impression management – are they exaggerating? Are they faking? You dont know if you are only asking questions - what if you have a person that has no insight -> not consciously - someone who may engage in positive impression management (not willing got admit to any symptoms that MAY be present -> consciously doing this) Psychological Tests Psychological Screening Measures  check list of symptoms that a patient may or may not have Beck depression inventory) - may not be as helpful  Beck Scales  beck anxiety inventory: actual measure of anxiety – read symptom and then mark -> not at all, mildly severe... - imitations: situation and context your interpreting is important – can be for non clinical reasons - what if the person was just screwing around with them?  These are very subjective  no diff than continuing with the clinical interview General Personality Inventories  Omnibus Measures - have good construct validity but also have measures of validity – diff scales if the person is exaggerating, if the person has no insight...  extensive measures that attempt to cover wide range of clinical psychopathology  self report measures  contain clinical measures and validity measures  can directly assess clinical psychopathology or assess mental and personality clusters and infer psychopathology from that profile Personality Assessment Inventory  shown in graph  personality assessment inventory (PAI) is a 344 item self report questionnaire that attempts to understand an individuals personality traits and characteristics  renders all psycho pathologies  renders diagnostic considerations based on the DSM-IV  diagnostic considerations involveAxis I andAxis II disorders  provides clinical and validity scales  has screening measure to make assessment more efficient, 22 items vs 344 items  all these tests are normed (standardized) – they are administered with and without disorders -> when get results of patient you have something to compare them with it - express this with T-scores  after answer questions – plot scores to see how they do compared to others -> the norm - (ICA)consistency scale: questions that are similar – same answer? Tell if they were paying attention to what they were answering – in the screen scale would not know if they were maying attention or not - frequency scale: items and most people would never indorse - NIM: neg impression management - SIM: somatic complaint - DEP: depression - PAR: paranoia - SEZ: schizophrenia - BOR: border line - LAC: alcohol -ANT: anti social - DRG: drug - SUI: suicide  above 70 – abnormal  clinical cut may not be so clear cut of what person might have Projective Techniques  common in 50s and 70s – not really common for diagnostic purposes but use to explore diff kind of things in therapy  projective hypothesis: the notion that highly unstructured stimuli are necessary to bypass defences in order to reveal unconscious motives and conflicts – psychoanalyst use this  projective techniques: tests of personality that involves use of unstructured stimulus materials - use of such materials maximizes the role of internal factors like emos and motives in perception Rorschach Inkblot Test  a projective test where subject is instructed to interpret a series of ten inkblots (monochromatic and coloured) reproduced on cards  techniques consists soliciting a number of responses, and then afterwards asking the person to explain their answer  scored on a variety of elements including number of response, popularity of response, response to colour = indicative of emotional control, shading = anxiety, focus on space = hostility  no reliability – not going to get same answers – test retest is bad  score by commonality of response .. hard to score  hesitation – anxiety – dig in deeper – freud  look at pic and tell me what you see Thematic Apperception Test  a projective test consisting of a set of 31 black and white pictures reproduced on cards, each depicting a potentially emotion-laden situations  the examinee, presented with the cards one at a time, is instructed to mak
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