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Janelle Leboutillier

PSYB64 Chapter 2 Ventral- towards to belly side of an animal Medial- toward the midline Rostral/anterior- structures that are located towards the head of an animal (in front of one another) Caudal/ posterior- structures located towards the tail of the animal (behind one another) Inferior/ventral- structures located towards the belly of an animal Superior/dorsal- structures located towards the back of an animal Neuraxis- an imaginary lie that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain Midline- an imaginary line that divides us into approximately equal half’s Ipsilateral- two structures are on the same side as the midline (left leg./left arm) Contralateral- structures on the opposite side of the midline (right arm/left leg) Medial (proximal)- structures closed to the midline (heart is medial to my arms) Lateral (distal)- structures to the side of the midline (arms are lateral to my nose) Coronol sections- frontal section, divide the nervous system from front to back (looking at the brain face side) Saggital sections- parallel to the midline, allowing us a side view of the brain Midsagittal section- divides the brain into approximately two equal half’s Horizontal/axial section-divides the brain from top to bottom Meninges- the layers of membranes that cover the CNS and the peripheral nerves Dura matter- outter most of three layers of meninges (in the CNS & PN)  leather like tissue that oulines the skull and bones Arachnoid layer- delicate spider web (middle layer) Pia mater- (pious mother) nearly transparent membrane sticks closely to the outside of the brain Sunarachnoid space- space filled with cerebrospinal fluid that lies between the archanoid and the pia mater Meningitis- when the meninges become infected Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)- special plasma like fluid circulating within the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space Ventricles- one of the four hollow spaces in the brain that contains CSF Choroid plexus- converts material form the nearby blood supple into cerebrospinal fluid – lining of the ventricles, secretes CSF Benefits of CSF; 1) fluid acts like a cushion to your brain  soften the blow, allows neurons to fire in maladaptive ways  prevents them from responding to pressure and giving false info Central canal- small midline channel in the spinal cord that has CSF THE BRAIN; 2 lateral ventricles (one in each hemisphere), third and fourth ventricles in the brain stem, fourth  continuous with the central canal and runs the length of the midline , opening below allows CSF to enter and flow Carotid arteries- supplies the brain with nutrients from the sides of the neck (blood vessel) Vertebral artery- travels through the back of the skull (blood vessel) THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CNS- the brain and the spinal cord  encased in bone damage is permanent Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – the nerves exiting the brain and the spinal cord the serve sensory to motor functions for the rest of the body – covered by only two layers and CSF does not flow through  damage can be recovered Spinal cord- long cylinder of nerve tissue that extends from the medulla to the first lumbar vertebra Vertebral column- the bones of the spinal column that protect and enclose the spinal cord Cervical nerves- one of the first 8 nerves that serve the area of the head neck and arms Thoracic nerves-one of the twelve pairs of spinal nerves that sere the torso Lumbar nerve- one of the five spinal nerves that serve the back of the legs and the genital Coccygeal nerve- the most caudal of the spinal nervesonly 1 White matter – neural tissue (the cord) made up of axons neurons that carry signals to other neurons  appears white because of fatty tissues called myelin Axons info about touch, position, pain and temperature Gray matter- area made up of cell bodies Dorsal horns- GM in the spinal cord that contains sensory neurons Ventral horns- GM in the spinal cord the contains motor neurons to the muscles  participate in involuntary movement/ spinal reflexes Patellar reflex- the knew jerk, spinal reflex, hit below the knew produces reflexive contraction  involuntarily Withdrawal reflex- pulls body part away from source of pain (sensory neuron motor neuron+ interneuron) THE HINDBRAIN Hindbrain- most caudal division of the brain; including the medulla pons and cerebellum  divides into myelencephalon./ medulla & metencephalon Midbrain- between H and F Forebrain- part of the brain containing diencephalon and telencephalon Hindbrain+midbrain=brainstem Cephalon means head Medulla contains nuclei, -> collection of cell bodies that share a function Reticular formation- a complex collection of nuclei that runs along the midline of the brainstem from the medulla up into the midbrain  regulate sleep and arousal Metencephalon- two structures the pons and cerebellum ; pons-> located between the medulla and the midbrain, part of the brainstem located in the hindbrain , cerebellum-> located in the metencephalon participates in balance, muscle tone muscle coordination, some types of learning and possible higher cognitive functions in humans  voluntary movements Cochlear nucleus- nucleus found in pons that receives info about the sound from the inner ear (info about sound) Vestibular nucleus- group of cell bodies in pons that receive input about the location of movement of the head from sensory structures in the inner ear Ralph nuclei- located in the pons that participate in the regulation of sleep and arousal Locus coeruleus- a structure in the pons that participates in arousal THE MIDBRAIN Mesencephalon- division of the brain lying between the H and the F Tectum- roof or dorsal half of the midbrain (top half) Tegmentum- covering or ventral half od the brain (bottom half) Cerebral aqueduct- the small channel running along the midline of the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles separates tbe T and T Periaqueductal gray- gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in the sensation of pain Red nucleus- located within the reticular formation that communicates motor information between the spinal cord and the cerebellum Substantia nigra- midbrain nuclei that communicates with the basal ganglia of the forebrain  degeneration is Parkinson’s disease Superior colliculi- the upper pair of bumps on the midbrain receive input from the optic nerves leaving the eye, cant tell you what you are seeing but allow us to make visually guided movements point in direction Inferior colliculi- involved in hearing, involved in the auditory cortex reflexes such as turning your head when you hear a loud noise THE FOREBRAIN Diencephalon- contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus & telencephalon- contains a bulk of the symmetrical left and right cerebr
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