Class Notes (836,277)
Canada (509,737)
Psychology (7,782)
PSYB32H3 (614)
Lecture

CHAPTER 2

7 Pages
66 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB64 Chapter 2 Ventral- towards to belly side of an animal Medial- toward the midline Rostral/anterior- structures that are located towards the head of an animal (in front of one another) Caudal/ posterior- structures located towards the tail of the animal (behind one another) Inferior/ventral- structures located towards the belly of an animal Superior/dorsal- structures located towards the back of an animal Neuraxis- an imaginary lie that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain Midline- an imaginary line that divides us into approximately equal half’s Ipsilateral- two structures are on the same side as the midline (left leg./left arm) Contralateral- structures on the opposite side of the midline (right arm/left leg) Medial (proximal)- structures closed to the midline (heart is medial to my arms) Lateral (distal)- structures to the side of the midline (arms are lateral to my nose) Coronol sections- frontal section, divide the nervous system from front to back (looking at the brain face side) Saggital sections- parallel to the midline, allowing us a side view of the brain Midsagittal section- divides the brain into approximately two equal half’s Horizontal/axial section-divides the brain from top to bottom Meninges- the layers of membranes that cover the CNS and the peripheral nerves Dura matter- outter most of three layers of meninges (in the CNS & PN)  leather like tissue that oulines the skull and bones Arachnoid layer- delicate spider web (middle layer) Pia mater- (pious mother) nearly transparent membrane sticks closely to the outside of the brain Sunarachnoid space- space filled with cerebrospinal fluid that lies between the archanoid and the pia mater Meningitis- when the meninges become infected Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)- special plasma like fluid circulating within the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord and subarachnoid space Ventricles- one of the four hollow spaces in the brain that contains CSF Choroid plexus- converts material form the nearby blood supple into cerebrospinal fluid – lining of the ventricles, secretes CSF Benefits of CSF; 1) fluid acts like a cushion to your brain  soften the blow, allows neurons to fire in maladaptive ways  prevents them from responding to pressure and giving false info Central canal- small midline channel in the spinal cord that has CSF THE BRAIN; 2 lateral ventricles (one in each hemisphere), third and fourth ventricles in the brain stem, fourth  continuous with the central canal and runs the length of the midline , opening below allows CSF to enter and flow Carotid arteries- supplies the brain with nutrients from the sides of the neck (blood vessel) Vertebral artery- travels through the back of the skull (blood vessel) THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CNS- the brain and the spinal cord  encased in bone damage is permanent Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – the nerves exiting the brain and the spinal cord the serve sensory to motor functions for the rest of the body – covered by only two layers and CSF does not flow through  damage can be recovered Spinal cord- long cylinder of nerve tissue that extends from the medulla to the first lumbar vertebra Vertebral column- the bones of the spinal column that protect and enclose the spinal cord Cervical nerves- one of the first 8 nerves that serve the area of the head neck and arms Thoracic nerves-one of the twelve pairs of spinal nerves that sere the torso Lumbar nerve- one of the five spinal nerves that serve the back of the legs and the genital Coccygeal nerve- the most caudal of the spinal nervesonly 1 White matter – neural tissue (the cord) made up of axons neurons that carry signals to other neurons  appears white because of fatty tissues called myelin Axons info about touch, position, pain and temperature Gray matter- area made up of cell bodies Dorsal horns- GM in the spinal cord that contains sensory neurons Ventral horns- GM in the spinal cord the contains motor neurons to the muscles  participate in involuntary movement/ spinal reflexes Patellar reflex- the knew jerk, spinal reflex, hit below the knew produces reflexive contraction  involuntarily Withdrawal reflex- pulls body part away from source of pain (sensory neuron motor neuron+ interneuron) THE HINDBRAIN Hindbrain- most caudal division of the brain; including the medulla pons and cerebellum  divides into myelencephalon./ medulla & metencephalon Midbrain- between H and F Forebrain- part of the brain containing diencephalon and telencephalon Hindbrain+midbrain=brainstem Cephalon means head Medulla contains nuclei, -> collection of cell bodies that share a function Reticular formation- a complex collection of nuclei that runs along the midline of the brainstem from the medulla up into the midbrain  regulate sleep and arousal Metencephalon- two structures the pons and cerebellum ; pons-> located between the medulla and the midbrain, part of the brainstem located in the hindbrain , cerebellum-> located in the metencephalon participates in balance, muscle tone muscle coordination, some types of learning and possible higher cognitive functions in humans  voluntary movements Cochlear nucleus- nucleus found in pons that receives info about the sound from the inner ear (info about sound) Vestibular nucleus- group of cell bodies in pons that receive input about the location of movement of the head from sensory structures in the inner ear Ralph nuclei- located in the pons that participate in the regulation of sleep and arousal Locus coeruleus- a structure in the pons that participates in arousal THE MIDBRAIN Mesencephalon- division of the brain lying between the H and the F Tectum- roof or dorsal half of the midbrain (top half) Tegmentum- covering or ventral half od the brain (bottom half) Cerebral aqueduct- the small channel running along the midline of the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles separates tbe T and T Periaqueductal gray- gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in the sensation of pain Red nucleus- located within the reticular formation that communicates motor information between the spinal cord and the cerebellum Substantia nigra- midbrain nuclei that communicates with the basal ganglia of the forebrain  degeneration is Parkinson’s disease Superior colliculi- the upper pair of bumps on the midbrain receive input from the optic nerves leaving the eye, cant tell you what you are seeing but allow us to make visually guided movements point in direction Inferior colliculi- involved in hearing, involved in the auditory cortex reflexes such as turning your head when you hear a loud noise THE FOREBRAIN Diencephalon- contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus & telencephalon- contains a bulk of the symmetrical left and right cerebr
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit