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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 LECTURE 2 SHARON JONES + dap kings The game gets old I learned the hard way Better things to do Give it back Ill still be true - Funk soul band - Trying to recreate classic 60s - Dirty funk feel - Modern but griddy ness of the past - Themes and Theories of Human Development I. What is a developmental theory? A. Scientific theory B. Characteristics of a good theory 1. Parsimony 2. Falsifiability 3. Heuristic Value II. Questions and controversies in human development A. Assumptions about human nature 1. Original sin 2. Innate purity B. Nature versus nurture C. Activity versus passivity D. Continuity versus discontinuity 1. Stages of development 2. Qualitative/quantitative 3. Connectedness of development III. Theories of human development A. Psychoanalytic theory 1. Components of personality 2. Psychosexual development B. Learning theory 1. Processes of learning 2. Social learning theory C. Cognitive developmental theory D. Ethological theory E. Ecological theory 1. The importance of the natural environment 2. Environmental layers WHAT IS A THEORY What is a theory in general? A set of concepts or propositions that describe and explain some aspect of experience. Purpose of the theory is to organize our theories/knowledge Help us understand observations What is a scientific theory? A public pronouncement indicating what a scientist believes about his or her area specific area of investigation What are the characteristics of a good theory? Parsimony Concise, yet able to explain a wide range of phenomena Theories w/ few principals that explain a large # of observations Falsifiability Theory is Capable of making explicit predictions Allows you to disconfirm/test theories Heuristic value Can be applied to unknown situations and cases Does not limit to certain situations Can apply theory outside of where it was initially created QUESTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES ABOUT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Assumptions about human nature Innate purity versus original sin (remember LEC 1 children born pure) Tabula rasa Child is neither good or evil blank slate Nature versus nurture Are humans a product of heredity or biological or shaped environmentally + experiences undergone through aging To say it is either environment or biologically drive is too simple Activity versus passivity Whats the child contribution to its own development Active= engages or passive= not really Continuity of development Stages of development Quantitative versus qualitative change Quantitative changes in degree Continuous- changing the amount of something As you grow taller- you walk faster Qualitative changes in kind Organisms is fundamentally different Ex: tadpole turns into a different creature - frog Connectedness of development What are the connections btw early development attirubutes compared to later development attirubutes Ex: does a violent toddler turn into a violent teenager Similarity versus differences Are the changes we experiences are they universal or similar across different cultures How universal is development Some cultures also vary individual to individual TF development is particularistic CONTINUOUS VS DISCONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT continuous e e u t i a t M A l t e m p e l t v m e I D Infant Adult AGE discontinuous
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