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Lecture 4


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 LECTURE 4 (on Midterm 2) Album “Straight to hell”- Hank Williams III (grandson of hank williams) Country heroes My drinkin’ problem Dick in dixie Not everybody likes us - Loves this guy, he does not usually like country music - Old time outlaw country music - Drinking, drug, sex are across all his songs - Record company did not know what to do with him - Also garage fuzz rock music – for years fought w/ record label Motor development I. Age norms for important motor milestones II. The development of reaching A. Underlying skills of visually-guided reaching 1. Perceptual abilities 2. Motor skill 3. Perceptual-motor coordination B. Reaching in neonates C. Normative sequence of reaching D. Reaching for a moving object E. Reaching with the hands and feet F. Is visually-guided reaching a myth? III. The development of locomotion A. Perceptual information in locomotion 1. Perceiving the properties of surfaces 2. Control of balance 3. Visually-guided locomotion B. A systems approach to development of walking 1. Component skills 2. Relation between skills Age norms for important motor skills Skill 50% 90% Lifts head 90° 2.2 3.2 when lying on stomach Rolls over 2.8 4.7 Sits (propped up) 2.9 4.2 Sits (no support) 5.5 7.8 Stands holding on 5.8 10.0 Walks holding on 9.2 12.7 Stands alone 11.5 13.9 Walks well 12.1 14.3 Walks up steps 17.0 22.0 Kicks ball forward 20.0 24.0 o Infants motor movements are uncoordinated o Newborns to humans are disadvantaged if compared to animals- who can follow around, feed themselves after birth o Human newborns cannot do it o Human newborns- start this way- but they do not remain this way- after 1 month- they reach the milestone- life their chin from ground when laying down o Above are motor milestones in age (by months) o Motor skills develop sequentially in the 1 2 years o Achievement of motor does not have to do w/ emotional or intellectual after the 2 years o Necessary skills for visually guided reaching 1. Perceptual skills • Object recognition • Figure-ground separation 2. Motor skills • Arm and hand coordination • Fine-motor coordination and control 3. Visual-motor integration and coordination • Visual guidance of the hand • Timing of the grasp Normative sequence for reaching - use bright fishing lure w/ bright object; put it out there and observe infant rxn 1 – 2 Months • Glance at objects when present • Begin to fixate objects for 5-10 sec • Arms not organized with vision • Show arm movement when object there, but not co ordinated w/ vision • Grasping- reflex behaviour 2 – 3 Months • Isolation of components breaks down • Focus on objects • Beginning of prehensory behavior • Infant are starting to move arm in the direction of the object • @ 2 to 3 months- can hit object but not grasp it • Raise hand towards object but does not reach for it 3 – 4 Months • Mutual grasping, 1 or 2 hands • Sometimes turn torso towards object 4 – 5 Months • Integrated looking and grasping • “Top-level” reaching • Good grasping of object • Fine motor grasping of object Type of Contact With a Moving Object (Claus von Hofsten) Von Hofsten & Lindhagen (1979) The number of reaches at each speed and age, expressed as a proportion of the maximum number of possible reaches (3 per condition).  When do infants accurate grasp objects while moving  12-24 weeks of age @ start  bring them back in 3 week interval  had them reach for moving objects under 3 conditions o slow speed o medium speed o fast speed  researchers were looking for infants rxn to object o visual rxn o motor rxn behaviour  findings o # of reaches infants made based on age and speed o more likely to reach for object the older they are o more reaches towards slow object VS faster object o does not tell you if whether they are successful at reaching it The type of contact with the object. Proportion of total number of reaches for “grasp,” “touch,” and “miss.”  Reaching successfully o Touch object o Contact and grasp it  Infants rarely miss the object- across all ages- # of misses are low  Make contact w/ object at early age but grasping occurs later on  18-21 weeks- grasping is out preforming touching o why? 4-5 months o Normative sequencing of reaching station is at 4-5 months o This data shows that infants can reach for successfully reach at stationary also successfully
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