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Lecture 7


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20 language Critical period - outside of that period, you cannot learn a skill sensitive period y Theories of language development  Noam Chomsky nd o 2 language learns are less lateralized in brain when learning it in older years compared to younger o no clear boundary for what a sensitive period is – we don’t know when it starts and ends o cut off for learning language as never been established o his theories have major impact  challenges w is theory o difficulty establishing structure of universal grammar  perhaps there is no single set of universal grammar o grammatical knowledge that is innate does not fit w/developmental theories of language  ex: when child use grammatical structure it means they automatically use grammatical but if that were the case, they would be able to apply it but they don’t. Interactionist approach - Michael Tomasello - 2 ways of understanding it o information processing o social interaction processing - information process assume children make sense of complex language environment by applying powerful cog capacity. o Ex: region that houses language is the same that govern perceptual skills, motor skills as well o Left hemisphere produces problems perceiving movement of lights, music, etc all of which are general information processing o Also suggest it is these processing skills that play a role in language and learning language o Ex: infants are amazing analyzers of speech - Social interaction processing o With language development, these social interactionsassumes you have an active child. o Language growth is influenced by the social context o Parents provide great deal of social support for language development o Evidence shows that social confidence and lang experiences appear related to and greatly influence development of language Getting ready to talk - Cooing and babbling - Becoming a communicator First step = cooing and babbling @ 2 months babies start to coo @ 6 months start to babble - Even deaf infants babble - Development of babble, infant must be able to hear own speech - For deaf babies, the babble wears off - Cochlea implant- provide sounds to stimulate nerve o For 5 months- deaf babies showed babbling o Provide stimulation - Deaf kids also babble but with their hands - Babies who are not deaf but w/ deaf parents, babble w/ their hands. 2 step = The role of language input 3-4 months- infants gaze same direction (remember joint attention). - it suggest that babies realize that gaze offers info about intentions, goals, communication, information all of which are preverbal communication - by 12 months- infants will look where adults look, only if adults eyes are open. If closed, babies wont look in same direction - joint attention contributes to language development o faster vocabulary development o enable them to figure out what adults are saying efficiently and profeccietly - by 6 months – thin of peek a boo example, they get upset - by 12 months- infants begin to recriprocate in their play becoming a communicator - preverbal gestures o involves labeling o children who point more learn language faster. Language in infancy and toddlerhood - first words o understand word meanings o the occurrence of spoken words st o spoken words appear to come around 1 year of life. o Research found that childs first words in chinse and English speaking  Social sounds, such as hug or important ppl, mom and dad  Action words = vroom, bang bang o As vocabulary expands, o Over conceptualization- initially the word car” means their own car. After that, they will use the word car, but all things in same category  Car, bike, train, are all cars. - two word utterances o learning 1-3 words per week o toddlers o categorize experiences into words o wider range of events to label which promote word language
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