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Abnormal psych notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

ABNORMAL PSYCH NOTES Anxiety is the unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension These disorders are diagnosed when feelings of anxiety are present. 6 categories include: phobias, panic disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, OCD,PTSD, and acute stress disorder one anxiety disorder is diagnosed with another symptoms arent disorder specific ethiological factors gave rise to anxiety disorders, which are applicable to more than one disorder. Anxiety disorders are the most common type of psychological disorders. These happen during childhood. More common in women then men. SAD is the most common anxiety disorder. People with an anxiety/substance disorder are less likely to seek help from a mental health service than those with a mood disorder. Social phobia is related to other anxiety disorders, substance abuse, depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. Strong occurrence of anxiety disorders and chronic pains are related. Comobority is strongest with depressive disorders. Watson and his boys thought that the current DSM model of anxiety and mood disorders were based fundatmentally between anxious and mood. This ignores the idea of a negative affect dimension. Disorders can be pushed together to make 3 subclasses. Major depression, dysthmic disorder, GAD and PTSD. Fear includes panic disorder and phobias Bipolar disorders include bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia. Maser thought of a paradigm shift towards a mixed categorical-dimensional classification system for DSM-5. Work is done to study the amygdala which is found in the temporal lobe. This involves: negative, positive and neutral emotions. People with these disorders have greater activity with two areas with negative emotional responses. Amygdala and the insula. The right amygdala is involved with PTSD. A phobia is a disrupting, dear mediated avoidance that is out of proportions to the danger actually shown and the victim views of it as infinite. Ergasiophobia is fear of working. Pnigophobia is fear of choking. Taphephobia is a fear of being buried alive. Mysophobia is a fear of contamination of dirt which plagues many people. Bowlby and Klein believed that psychoanalysts focus on the content of the phobia and see the phobic object as a symbol of an important unconscious fear. These psychoanalysts believed that the content of phobias had important symbolic value. Behaviourists ignore content of phobia and focus on the function of it. Specific phobias are unwarranted fears cause by presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation. DSM-IV-TR breaks it down into several categories. Blood & injections, situations, animals, natural environment, This can be branched into Agoraphobia Fear of heights/ water Threat fears Fears of being observed Speaking fears These are involved with 2 higher-order specific fears like specific and social fears. The most common specific phobia subtypes in order are: Animal phobias Heights Claustrophobia Flying Being in or on water Going to the dentist Seeing blood or getting an injection Storms thunder or lightning. A specific fear focused in a phobia can vary crossculturally. Social phobias are persistent, irrational fears linked to other people being present. Generalized social phobias have many interpersonal situations, specific social phobias have an intense fear of one specific situation.CCHS found a 3 factor model Social interaction fears Observation fears Public speaking fears. Behavioural theories focus on learning as the way where phobias are attained Watson and Rayners confitionning of a fear in little Albert. Avoidance-conditioning formula is a 2-factor theory proposed by Mowrer. Classical conditioning Escaping/avoiding the CS by operant conditioning. Some ideas show that some fears could be attained in this particular way. Vicarious learning is learning fear by observing others. Anxious-rearing model has the belief that anxiety disorders in children are due to constant parental warnings which increase anxiety in the child. Prepared learning Original avoidance learning model cant address why some people are only able to fear certain objects or events. Certain stimuli, are more likely to be cla
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