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Lecture 5

PSYB20 - Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 Lecture 5 Profs Speech - Purple - Motor development and physical growth go hand-in-hand - Childs body changes continuously and drastically in the first 2 decades of life, essentially until adulthood - Body dimensions change as well - As an infant, we have a big head and a small body, with the head being of the total body length - As an adult, our head is 1/7 of our total body length - There is a complex series of changes in terms of size, etc. from infancy to adulthood - In puberty there are dramatic changes in physical growth that have psychological significance - Time between birth and puberty o In rats 1-2% of life o Apes extended approximately 7 years - Time between birth and puberty adds times for the acquisition of cultural things - Infants gain weight rapidly and height increases almost as fast - After infancy, growth slows down considerably - In adolescence, there is a huge change in weight and height again Slide 2 Distal Growth Curves - Distal growth curves: o Plots the growth of particular body dimension each year o Can determine interesting facts about physical growth o Can be used for predictions Girls achieve about 50% of their adult height by 1 years old, and boys achieve about 50% of their adult height by 2 years old Plot boys and girls separately, see sex differences Ex. In infancy, height and weight comparable boys show more growth Age 11, see reversal in trend girls shoot past boys Advantage short-lived reverses again by 14 Boys catch up and exceed Slide 3 Velocity Curve - Plots absolute growth at yearly intervals - Better than distance curve at identifying timing of growth spurts o Sex differences are seen much more clearly between boys and girls o Girls have a spurt in height and weight around age 11, boys at 14, but boys continue to grow and surpass girls Slide 4 Growth Curves for Body Organs - Velocity curves for body organs: o Plotted in terms of percent of adult size o See variety of patterns for different organs; see variety in different organ system growth Brain and skull mature quite quickly in early life, reaches adult size by age 8/9 Genital more slowly, then growth spurt in adolescence (puberty) Lymphoid system overgrows, then shrinks grows larger than adult size and then shrinks back o Maturation of different systems at different rates suggests that there might not be a pattern of growth o Different body parts grow at different rates Slide 5 Changes in Body Proportions - Cephalo-caudal development: o Growth occurs from the head downwards o In infancy upper part of body grows first Exception: in motor development, reaching with hand/feet issue Child shows better coordination with feet at the bottom of body than with the hands at the top of the body o Lower part of body catches up in adolescence - Proximo-distal development: o Growth in infancy follows this trend, but trend reverses in puberty (hands and feet grow before arms and legs) o Growth begins near center of body axis o Trunk of body grows before upper arms o Upper arms grow before lower arms and hands Slide 6 Continuous vs. Episodic Growth - Continuous growth misrepresentation looking at the growth from fetus to adolescence, it occurs in sudden spurts; it looks continuous because we average over, but it is actually more episodic o If we look at brief periods (24 hrs), children have growth spurts and then no growth, and then growth again - Episodic growth found in childs weight and height, head circumference and leg length, characteristic of normal healthy children - Children grow more at night than in the day; grow more when their weight is not on their legs and feet Slide 7 Psychological Reactions to Physical Growth - Puberty: The transition to adulthood o Sexual maturity o Physical changes and development Large change in sexual differences Development of reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics Timing of developmental changes and speed; physical events and rate have psychological effects on the child o Psychological impact of puberty Mainly deals with girls Girl reactions to first menarche (first period marked event, happens suddenly, without warning) Early studies o Subjects tend to remember their first period as traumatic, upsettingo Puberty was a time of emotional upset for women o Redo of the study found mixed responses, with the most common being surprise they knew it was coming but they didnt know when, others were pleased, excited, scared o Considering the time of the original experiment 1950s- it was common for girls to have little information o Today almost all females know about the changes that will occur Importance of advance information o Prior knowledge of what was going to happen = important o Regardless of the timing of the first period, those with knowledge reacted more favourably, those with more support reacted better, those without knowledge, had a traumatic experience o Family environment makes a difference in terms of reaction Girls with fathers who did not know about periods had a more negative reaction (got information from mom) Girls with fathers who knew about periods had more favourable reactions The reactions were not dependent on whether dad knew or not, but because of the
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