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Lecture 7

PSYB20 - Lecture 7.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20Lecture 7 Profs SpeechPurpleSlide 2The Mind as a ComputerInformation processing theory is not a single unified theory not a developmental theory but a theory of general cognitive abilityInformation processing theory is an approach used by psychologists in studying different aspects of cognitionThemind as a computer is the underlying analogy for information processing o The mind is a complex symbol manipulating systemStep 1Encoding o Take in and store information in symbolic representation formatStep 2Recoding o Internal process that Operate on information revise its symbolic structureStep 3Decoding o Decipher and interpret meaning compare new information with previously stored information link it to other informationInformation is transformed generates a new representation of informationStep 4Output o Produce a response usually a behavioral performance like solving a task or problemSimilar to Piaget in terms of the view of the childContrast attempts to offer precisions in providing declared understanding of what cognition does when it is at workSlide 3Behaviourist FoundationsWas not concerned with internal processes only concerned with observable behaviour in response to stimuliKendlerKendler 1962 Reversal and NonReversal Learning o Learning experimentparticipants received stimuli with 2 different dimensions participants were reinforced to respond to one of the dimensions o As learning occurscan have reversal learning or nonreversal learningReversal learningwhere the nature of the response is reversed re slide diagram ie littleyes bigno in reversalNonreversal learningdiagramgreenyes redno which should be learned quicker and easier because you just have to form a new association ie we didnt associate these colours before o Reversal learning involves 2 stepsGet rid of the previous association and then substitute the new association The two steps means that reversal will be harder but found to be harder only for children 6 years of age reversal is easier than nonreversal for those 6 years of age o In reversal it is explained that participants are not learning an association but an internal rulein this particular case they are learning to pay attention to size o This suggests that there is more going on than just behaviour we are learning internal strategies o Chomsky posed a developmental problem he argued that the child cant learn language based on the behaviourist approachChildren can produce language they have never heard before and they can create sentences that they have never heard before language can be created and therefore children are learning rules of languageComputer science became a major force began talking of humans as problem solving machinesComputer science was the influence that underlay information processingSlide 4AtkinsonShiffrins Store ModelAtkinsonShiffrin 1968 o Model of how information moves into the system is stored and is used to produce output o 3 different storage facilities sensory short termworking long term o Notion of 3 storage facilities can be thought of as computer hardware o In the store model we have internalcontrol processes that operate on information change it move it through the system in various ways o Information can move to longterm storage through rehearsalo Control processes are learned not inborn and can therefore produce dramatic individual differenceso Information moves through the system sequentially o Limitations how do we retrieve permanent information that we haveDifferent process o The capacity of the system the amount of information maintainedand processed can change but the basic structure stays the sameSlide 5The Levels of Processing ApproachCraikLockhart 1972 o Retention of informationhow we use information has to do with how we process information in the first placeThe retention of information is a function of the depth to which the incoming stimuli has been analysed by the system o Example A written wordLevelsSuperficial Perceptual characteristics eg capital vs small caseMiddle Phonemic characteristics How does the word soundDeep Semantic features or meaningo In terms of the store model hardware and software can both change o In the levels of processing approachdevelopmental changes are the source of software changeo Does structural capacity changeCurrently research says that the hardware pretty much stays the same as children ageo Adults rehearse more effectively than children Slide 6AttentionPreschool and schoolaged children differ in terms of attentionPreschool children have a shorter attention span and are more easily distracted than schoolaged childrenWork on attention tends to look at inhibition planning and selectionInhibition
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