Chapter 8: Mood Disorders
Mood disorders: disabling disturbances in emotion, from the sadness of depression to the irritability of mania
Depression: emotional state marked by great sadness and feeling of worthlessness and guilt. Withdrawal from
others, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, disinterest and pleasure in unusual activities
15% of primary care patients in Canada are psychologizers (people who emphasize the psychological aspect of
Mania: emotional sate or mood of intense but founded elation accompanied by irritability, hyperactivity,
talkativeness, flights of ideas, distractibility and impractical grandiose plans. This person shifts from topic to topic,
can become sociably annoying, very obvious. Last from weeks to months
Diagnosis of major depressive disorder – usually has to last for 2 weeks and has to carry at least 5 symptoms. Either
depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure MUST be one of them
Bipolar 1 Disorder: episodes of mania or mixed episodes that include symptoms of both mania and depression.
There is elevated mood plus 3 additional symptoms. Symptoms must be severe to impair social and occupational
increase in activity level at work, socially or sexually
unusual talktiveness, rapid speech
inflated self-esteem, belief that one has speech talents, powers and abilities
Bipolar occurs less than major depressive disorder. 4.4% of the population. Age of onset is in the 20’s and occurs
equally in men and women. 50% of bipolar cases experience a reoccurrence within 12 months.
women: depression is more common
men: mania is more common
* A problem with classification of mood disorder is their great heterogeneity. People with the same diagnoses can
vary greatly from one another.
Those who experience both mania and depression on a daily basis are termed mixed episodes
Bipolar II disorder (hypomania): individuals have episodes of major depression accompanied by a change in
behaviour or mood that is less extreme than full-blown mania.
psychotic features: some people may be subject to delusions and hallucinations. These appear to be useful
distinction among people with unipolar depression.
melancholic: specific pattern of depressive symptoms, they find no pleasure in any activity and are unable
to feel better even temporarily when something goo happens. There depressed mood is worse in the
morning, they wake up 2 hours earlier, loose appetite, weight, agitated. It is a more severe type of
catatonic features: you can have chronic features such as motor immobility or excessive, purposeless
activity. Can occur within 4 weeks of childbirth and can be postpartum, perinatal or prenatal
seasonal affective disorder: both bipolar and unipolar disorders can be diagnosed between a particular
episode during a particular time of the year. Winter, summer, fall depression. Some say the reduction of
sunlight causes their depression. 11% of people. 18% in the Inuit community, highest rate yet found
Chronic mood disorder: mood disorders are predominant. Although these symptoms must be visible for 2 years,
they are enough to warrant a diagnose for major depressive or manic episode.
cyclothymic disorder: frequent period of depressed