- In instituational environment, we have rules in place. Who will record the data and when they
will be recording it? U have to pre engage who will be the reinforcing agent. Figure out how
many tokens you wanna pay out.
- Always start off with more tokens. We wanna reinforce token as much possible. Gradual dec the
number of token with time. You wanna have a back up reinforcer as well & monitor the
frequency of the reinforcer. You wanna keep the store open mostly at the beginning so the
conditionary take place.
- You shud keep track of monitoring cost. You may be able to manage punishing consequence for
desirable behavior. Ex. In patient treatment setting, you ll have some punishing component to
- If these pple don’t do the right behavior, it will be problem for you. So make sure they do
positive execution of their duties.
- Possible confusion: staff new to the program, you think they will catch on just like the other
employs. Be aware that it can be an issue.
- if you use a poker chip from the dollar store, it’s a problem bcz that pt’s brother can buy bunch
of those and give it to him on his visit. So in order to avoid that problem, we can make a pt’s box
tht is at the nursing station where token is not accessible to them & hence we can keep track.
- Whenever there is a secretes involve, we see pple being abusing the system.
- Generalization is v. imp. You replace the tangible token with everyday reinforce. This goes back
to social praise. You can eliminate the token in two ways: by just not giving many tokens for diff
behavior s or by increasing the instances of behavior to get the token. And or you can have the
token dec in the value. Tokens mean less.
1) Decide for your client wht behavior you want to address. Take a baseline for individual clients.
2) You wanna find wht good back up reinforcer is and look for wide array of those reinforcer. You
can directly or indirectly figure wht they are like. They shud be durable & counterfeited.
3) Fill ur store : one room open all the time. Decide on your resources, duties of staff and how
many staff mem. Think about client as well wht is the best possible schedule of reinforcement
and for other clients as well.
4) Decide on token exchange rate
5) Every single day the store is open b/w 2-5. So if you have the store open only at the end of the
week, it will be more valuable only at the end of the week.
6) If there are neg behavior then you shud necessarily address them.
7) Ethnical consideration- abuse can take place. Someone has to make the bed four times. Clean up
the dishes. And thy get one token this is not gonna work. It is not gonna be fair to the person. In
order to make sure it is legitimate, you wanna make a token manual. So it is transparent to
Application The student tends to be distracted and pay attention to things in the room other than the
instructional items that are being presented. Describe the token economy you will implement
with these students.
Solution: first you will identify the behavior that will be reinforced with tokens. You decide that
the answering ques correctly and pay attention ( defined as looking at the techer) and the
instructional items will be reinforced with tokens.
Decide on the schedule of reinforcement. Student will receive one token for each correct
answer. You decide to reinforce paying attention on a variable interval schedule (VI 3 mi)
You set a timer that will beep on the average every 3 min . Each student who is paying attention
when the timer beeps will get a token. Next you decide on the items that you will use as tokens.
Although many can be used effectively e.g poker chips. Each student shud have a can infront of
them. When they are paying attention, you drop the token. That experience allows that
behavior to be foster for a long run. The back up reinforcer are placed in locked room. Give
them the opportunity to choose. Exchange rate is determined. We wanna establish by giving
more in the beginning. It takes some time to get clematises to contingencies.
Behavioral contract – establish a new behavior or kick out a bad behavior for one person or two
pple. Once you sign a form, you become more committed. this is public display . it becomes a
legel tender. If there is no consequence , then there would be no motivation hence wont work.
Identify the target behavior pro or neg
Operationally define these variables.
State how the behavior is going to be measure “ We are gonna use scale in doctors’s office on
Describe how long the total treatment is? E.g. 8 weeks at this rate. Doesn’t mean it will follow 8
weeks completely. You cant set unachievable goal, bcz that person is not gonna get encouraged
& the bar is too high
Positive and neg punishment dec neg behavior. E.g we can use cost response. If not lose 2
pound per week, you loose certain about of money or something.
Signature at the bottom becomes really imp for future behavior.
One party contract : have a contracter manager to help design the program
Two party contract: two pple or parties e.g spouces. they are not doing the things that they are
suppose be doing. It can specify party A has problem with this. Party B has problem with this. So
if mutually you can address them, both will benefit from behavior of the others.
Parallel contract: two pple contract with no relationship bwt the behavior of each other. In
contract, quid pro quo contract – relationship bwt the behavior of each other. One party has
effect on the party B behavior. It motivates the other party to do their job.