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PSYB45H3 (337)


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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 18: Positive Punishment Procedures & the Ethics of Punishment In positive punishment, aversive events are applied contingent on the occurrence of a problem behaviour, and the result is a decrease in the future probability of the behaviour. Contingent on the problem behaviour, the child was made to engage in an aversive activity. As a result, the problem behaviour was less likely to occur in the future. An aversive activity is a low- probability behaviour the person typically would not choose to engage in. Although an aversive stimulus is an environmental event that can be a punisher for another behaviour. A person will try to avoid or escape from performing an aversive activity. As a result, the change agent often has tose physical guidance to get the person to engage in the aversive activity contingent on the problem behaviour. When applying an aversive activity as a positive punisher, the change agent instructs the client to engage in the aversive activity immediately contingent on the problem behaviour. If the client doesnt engage in the activity on command, the change agent then uses physical guidance to make the client engage in the behaviour. Eventually the client should engage in the activity in command to avoid the physical guidance that previously followed the command. Application of aversive activities: Types of Positive Punishment Procedures: o Overcorrection: Decrease aggressive and disruptive behaviours exhibited by people with mental retardation in institutional settings. Client is required to engage in an effortful behaviour for an extended period contingent on each instance of the problem behaviour. 2 forms of overcorrection Positive Practice: o Client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behaviour contingent on an instance of the problem behaviour. o Engage in correct behaviour with physical guidance if necessary, for an extended period or until the correct behaviour has been repeated a number of times. o Ex. Teacher marks a incorrect spelling word and tells student to write correct word out ten times.
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