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Chapter 1- introducing applied behaviour analysis.docx

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Amanda A Uliaszek

What does behaviour mean? Anything a person that is influence by external (overt) and internal (covert) External and internal behaviors  Our behaviour in everyday life occurs in the context of events that are external such as the behaviour of other people or the weather in our environment, and internal, such as our thoughts and physiological processes.  Applied behaviour analysis: the well-established and exciting approach to understand and change people’s behaviour.  Behaviour: refers to anything a person does, typically because of internal or external events. EX: behaviour change can be fairly simple sometimes: such as raising one’s hand when a teacher asks a question, and sometimes it involves as sequence of actions as in making a sandwich.  The behaviours we’ve considered so far have been external or overt.—that is, open to view or observation. Overt behaviours can be of two types: verbal or motor.  Verbal behaviours are actions that involve the use of language.  Motor behaviour are actions that involve body movement, without requiring the use of language.  Overt behaviours have been and continue to be the main focus of applied behaviour analysis.  Some behaviours are internal or covert, not viewable or openly shown, and are sometimes called “private” events. (skinner), 1974) EX: if you team won or lost, your increased heart rate would be covert.  Behaviour analysis focuses on overt behaviours is that they can be observed and measured directly by another person.  Covert behaviours can be observed or felt by the person who is performing the bahviour and must be measured either indirectly, perhaps thru verbal or written reports, or with special equipment such as a device to measure heart rate. What is Not behaviour?  We tend to focus on broad characteristics to describe a person’s behaviour because they provide a convenient and efficient way of communicating a lot of information. EX: adjectives don’t describe behaviour such as “smart”.  Broad characteristics are imprecise- they don’t tell us specifically what we wud need to change to improve a person’s behaviour. Hence the more precise we are in describing the behaviour to be changed, the more successful we are likely to be in measuring and improving the behaviour.  In Clinical practice, therapists generally use diagnosis to classify clients. However the diagnoses are similar to using traits: they do not indicate what specific behaviours need to be changed.  Outcomes of behaviours are not behaviours. EX: getting higher grades is not behaviour. It is the outcome of the behaviour. How behaviour develops  Inborn behaviours are called reflexes.> are inherited.  Two reflexes: rooting reflex: baby turns head towards an object that lightly touches its cheek.  Sucking reflex: the baby starts to suck when its lips are touched with any small rounded object such as nipple or finger.  all other behaviours develop after birth and their development depends on two process:  Heredity: affects behavioral development in at least two ways: charts the person’s maturation or physical growth of the muscle and nervous systems. EX: in the earliest years, physical growth is fastest in the head and upper body and spreading down the arms and legs later, that’s why typical 3 year old can put on a pullover sweater but cannot tie their shoelaces.  Also inheritance influences the behaviour: stuttering  Experience: plays an important role and is usually the dominant factor in development of behaviours. EX: happens through LEARNING. How we Acquire and change behaviour  Learning: an internal process that applies to such a wide range of behaviours and people don’t always display what they have learned. It is a durable change in behavioural potential as a result of experience. Respondent conditioning  Came about by Ivan Pavlov.  Respondent conditioning is a learning process in which a stimulus (the eventual CS) gains the ability to elicit a response through repeated association with a stimulus (the US) that already produces that response.  He concluded that the association between the stimuli, such as the sight of food, and the salivary response must have been learned.  Unconditioned stimulus (CS)- an event that elicits a specific response automatically- and the automatic response to that stimulus is called unconditioned response (UR)  Because you leaned the name- salivation association, the learned stimulus (the food’s name) is called the Conditioned stimulus (CS).  The salivation elicited by the name of the food is called a conditioned response (CR). Operant condition  Operant condition: it is the learning process by which behaviour changes because of its consequences. The responses we acquire thru this type of learning are called operant behaviours.  The term operate indicates that these behaviours operate on the environment, producing consequences. Consequences in operant conditioning  Operant conditioning in B.F. Skinner, distinguished between behavioural consequences of two types: reinforcement and punishment.  Reinforcement: a consequence (rewarding) following behaviour (studying) strengthens- that behaviour, causing performance of the behaviour to increase. NOTE* rewarding or removing/avoiding.  If performance of a behaviour increases when it is followed by a particular consequence, we can conclude two things : reinforcement occurred and the consequence was reinforcing.  Punishment: A consequence (changing pants themselves) following behaviour (pees on the bed) leads to a decrease in performance of that behaviour.  if performance of a behaviour decreases when it is followed by a particular consequence, we can conclude that punishment occurred and the consequence served as a punisher.  The best way to determine whether an event punishes behaviour is to observe the behaviour over time: if it decreases when it is followed by the consequence, punishment has occurred. Antecedents in operant conditioning  Behaviour is influenced not only by the consequences that follow it but also by the events and circumstances that precede it. These cues are called Antecedents because they precede and set the occasion for your action.  A (antecedents) (bladder tension) B (behaviour) (peeing) c (consequences)(punished)  Operant conditioning can influence virtually any behaviour, regardless of whether the behaviour is External:verbal, or motor, overt or covert. Relating respondent and operant conditioning  Respondent and operant condition two types of conditioning that are to some extent separate and different, they almost always happen together in real life- one type flows into the other.  EX: 10 years old Tim ws in his room listening to a song he liked on the radio, which was plugged in a wall outlet. His curiousity led him to stcik ovjects (an operant motor behaviour) into the open outlet, which produced a painfull shock to his hand (punishment for his be
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