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Behaviour and Modification - Chapter 21.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

BEHAVIOUR AND MODIFICATION Chapter 21: Respondent Conditioning Respondent Conditioning in Everyday Life Conditioned Emotional Responses  conditioned emotional response (CER): one type of respondent beh that concerns applied beh analysis - CR is mainly an emotion  two categories of fear: phobia (intense and irrational fear of something specific) and anxiety (fear that has a vague or unspecified source)  experience and biology play imp roles in learning CERs Role of Direct and Indirect Experience in CERs  ppl can acquire CERs through direct or indirect respondent conditioning  direct = person actually experiences CS and US  indirect = person acquires a CER by observing other ppl in fearful sit (modelling) or receiving fearful info about situation  phobias common in childhood and most phobias tend to disappear on their own in months  fear mainly acquired through direct  most experience neg situations with feared obj  way indirect leads to CER is unclear and direct processes dont account well for the fact that many ppl who have extremely frightening experiences do not develop long lasting severe fears Inborn Processes and CERs  biological processes in development of CERs  genetics  inborn factors may make some ppl more vulnerable than others to develop fear reactions from their experiences Physiological Reactions  Pavlov demonstrated the respondent conditioning of a physiological response – salivation in dogs  salivation is UR to the US food in the mouth through conditioning  almost any perviously neutral stimulus can be CS and elicit salivation – now a CR ^  all physiological reactions can become CRs by respondent conditioning - ex asthma, low back pain, immune system functioning Substance Use andAbuse  respondent and operant conditioning contribute to one's continued and increasing use of mood altering substances  with operant conditioning the effects on substance use occur in two ways 1. positive reinforcement: taking substances usually produces pleasant mood states that provide positive reinforcement for the beh 2. neg reinforcement: when ppl stop taking a substance after having taken it for a whole , they experience unpleasant “withdrawal” symptoms which go away by taking the substance again  respondent conditioning is involved in substance use in two ways 1. develops CS (like a smoker seeing a smoke and lighter) which produces internal CRs like unconditioned reactions of actually using the substance - these internal Crs include physiological reactions – like nicotine in smoke arouses body , increases heart rate.. - ppl with alcoholism who see fav drink respond with strong craving and increased salivation.. and arousal - craving for substance are greater then the Css occur in real life than when they are presented on TV 2. body adapts to a substance requiring more and more of it to achieve the same effect = tolerance 0 respondent conditioning contributes to increased substance use because the addicts associate Css like room in which they use it , with physiological reactions (Urs) that occur and protect the body from increased amounts of substance (USs)  death from heroin – usually die bc CR is not there – addict took heroin in new envir  emetic therapy: one respondent method that is used in treating alcohol abuse – it has the person take an emetic (drug (US) that produces nausea as a UR when alcohol is consumed - after a few tries drinking alcohol is able to elicit nausea without the drug (US) – alcohol is now a CS and nausea is a CR Cancer Treatment Reactions  aversion learning – food they consume with sickness - associate the food as a CS for the US (being sick) and new disliking for food = CR  taste aversion = relates to a side effect of cancer treatment  vomiting in cancer patients produce two reactions by respondent conditioning - learned food aversion: like taste aversion learning – food becomes distasteful because person associates it as a CS with the US of being sick - anticipatory nausea: drug is the US and nausea ia the UR and CR Learning Positive Reactions  respondent conditioning partly involved in developing positive reactions to events in our life = pairing NS with a US that already elicits a positive response UR like happiness  commercials use resp conditioning by pairing pleasant images US like models that elicit good reactions UR, with product which becomes a CS – hope is that the CS in the future will elicit a good reaction CR – so they will buy the product Factors and Phenomena in Respondent Conditioning  factors influence development of resp conditioning and strength of the resulting resp beh - ex how consistently the CS and US were paired - Css that were paired consistently with US are more likely to elicit the CR - ex greater number of times the CS and US were paired CS-US Timing and Intensity  timing is critical  NS and US must occur close enough in time to allow person to connect the two  intensities of CS and US important too  resp conditioning develops more quickly and strongly when either or both of these stimuli are fairly strong Relevance of the CS to the US  some CS -US combinations are more easily related than others like food and sickness - bc some combos have stimuli that are more relevant to each other bc of
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