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Lecture

Behaviour Modification- Lecture 4

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Behaviour Modification PSYB48 Lecture 4 st 1 February 2013 Midterm February 11 5-7pm ////////// - 15 beats, 9 beats Implementing Conditioning Procedures Video: On Classical Condition This guy was doing an experiment where he gave a guy a gum everytime he started his computer, and he kept repeating it, then when he started the computer the guy stuck his hand out for the gum. He wasn’t even aware that he was being conditioned Review on Operant Conditioning - The outcome of the behaviour can change the outcome of the behaviour either repeating or not repeating in the future. - Behaviours increased and decreased based on the consequences - Reinforcement= an increase in target behaviour is likely to increase in the future - If a consequence is reinforcing a behaviour it is making it likely to occur - Recreational drug use, people are more likely to use drugs is the consequences are good, being high is a reinforcement - Punishment- a drecrease in target behaviour - Anything that decreases the likely hood a behaviour occurring. For instance getting a speeding ticket. Another example is getting a hangover from drinking and saying you’re never going to drink again. - You can have positive reinforcement and negative, and you can have positive punishment and negative punishment. - Reinforcement - Positive= adding something; getting a good grade, something is added, and it increase you going to class. Anything you are getting that is extra to include the behaviour - Negative= removing something; if a negative mood gets taken away from you coming to class, that is a negative reinforcement. It is taking away something bad, for instance if you have a headache and you take an aspirin and your headache goes away, then that is a negative reinforcement. A negative reinforce for someone a kid who has homework, you tell them you will give them less homework the following week, or they wont have to go to church, taking away something. - Punishment - Positive= adding something; if you come to class you get extra homework, or you have a quiz. - Negative- removing something; taking away the web option, you are taking away something. - Think about if this behaviour is more likely to increase or decrease and if you are adding something or taking away something. - A person smoking a cigarette; reducing anxiety is a negative reinforcement. - A person avoiding doing homework; their homework piles up is a positive reinforcement. - A person brushing teeth; a positive reinforcement is your breath smells good, and a negative reinforcement is no cavities. - A person comes to her office hours; getting yelled at is a positive punishment Video: The physiological body responds to thought and perceptions. - Heart rates and bodily senses responses to our thoughts - What is this activity is out of balance? We get chronic pains, anxiety, tension and responsive problems. - Don’t rely on just pills to prevent these problems. - The Biofeedback and Neurofeedback technology allows us to see the body as a mirror image, but we are able to see all the sensory things that are going on in our bodies. Biofeedback - There’s a lot of advertisement trying to get people to do that - Gain voluntary control over involuntary biological processes. The heartbeat example, being able to slow your heartbeat down by relaxing and breathing slowly. - There is a difference of control that we have over our different body parts. - The have ideas that heart rate is linked to tension headache - Biofeedback is a form of operant conditioning. If biofeedback showed that your heart beat slowed down that is negative reinforcement and its going to make you want to keep doing it. - They are types of biological processes, and whether we can control these - You can also get biofeedback on your skin, it is based on sweat. It gives us a measure of anxiety. - They might use biofeedback to see if the person is successful at reducing anxiety. - You can also measure your blood pressure on biofeedback, as well as electrical brain activity and temperature. - The point of biofeedback is because you are getting these instant feedback. You usually do it to accomplish a goal, if you are getting instant headaches. - We thing that increase heart rate is connected to anxiety, therefore if you decrease your heart rate you can decrease anxiety. - This works for, headaches, relaxation, epilepsy, hypertension (high blood pressure), stress reduction. Benefits - You can do it at home, you are trained how to do these things, such as breathing, using imagery. You want to practice these things as skills. People also use this in althletic training, if you can control your heart rate and breathing you can perform better. - Only need minimal
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