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PSYB45H3 (335)

Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 2: Identifying and Assessing Target Behaviours Goals and Target Behaviours - target behaviour to be changed must be defined in terms of specific, objective, and measurable actions - e.g. whining: the person is expressing complaint verbally in a high and wavering pitch Identifying and Defining Behaviour Goals - behaviour analysts achieve goals by applying a behaviour change program through outcome goals and behavioural goals - outcome goals are the broad/abstracted values we want to achieve (e.g. enabling disabled children to do self-help skills and improve student grades in school) - Behaviour Goals - the level of the target behaviour we hope to achieve (e.g. if the target behaviour was jogging, the behavioural goal might be to increase jogging to 3 one hour sessions each week, or target behaviour of losing weight with behavioural goal of reduce snacking to two servings per day) - behavioural goals and outcomes can sometimes be the same when they both involve quitting a behaviour (e.g. curling your hair) - behavioural subgoals - intermediate levels of the behaviour to be achieved by specific dates during the program Defining Operant Target Behaviours - e.g. if you wanted to modify how fast you chew each bite of food, you'd define bite and slower Complex tasks - a motor activity that consists of a sequence of antecedents (stimuli) and responses is called a behavioural chain, and each antecedent -response pair making up the chain is called a link (e.g. washing hair might contain the following links: antecedent of seeing shampoo bottle and response of reaching and grasp bottle, antecedent of see and grasp bottle with response of flip bottle upside down, antecedent of flipping bottle upside down with response to pull cap off, etc.) Prioritizing: Which Behaviour to Address First - behaviour analysts decide on which changes need to be made based on the extent to which each changed behaviour contributes to person’s behavioural and social functioning with: - lead to reinforcement in target person’s everyday environment? -> Pepe is nonverbal and shows disruptive behaviours, if taught how to communicate he could be less frustrated and people would be more pleasant to him - reduce occurrence/harm/damage – aggressive behaviour of harming people or damaging properties - be a prerequisite for learning a skill enabling a person to function better – learning name of numbers before doing arithmetic - affect client’s important people in a positive way - be a behavioural cusp (a behaviour that has benefits beyond its direct effects (e.g. child’s learning to crawl and read - show response generalization – altering one behaviour leads to changes in another (e.g. if you overcome the fear of snakes, you feel like you can overcome anything) - take the place of problem such as rewarding a student raising their hands to ask a question instead of blurting out 1 How to Assess Target Behaviours - rate – per unit of time (e.g. number of hours a student studies per week, number of aggressive acts per session) 1) Frequency – number of time a response was observed, effective for changing how often the behaviour occurs (e.g. counting the number of cigs you smoke a day) 2) Duration – the length of time each target behaviour lasts from start to finish (e.g. duration of watching tv) 3) Magnitude – intensity/degree/size (e.g. rating scales of emotions -> 10 point scale ranging from 0 to 9 where 0 is no anger and 9 is extreme anger) 4) Latency – the amount of time a person takes to initiate the appropriate response to an antecedent (e.g. assessing the quickness with which a child complies with teacher’s/parent’s request) 5) Quality – how well the person performs the target behaviour (e.g. performance of athletic skills, how well someone draws a picture, playing a musical instrument) 6) Trials to Criterion – tallying the number of trials the target person needed to achieve at the specific level of performance (e.g. number of tries needed before getting a free throw in) 7) Percentage –
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