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Last Lecture.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

Last Lecture: Psychopathology and Psychotherapy  Theories of Psychopathology o What defines psychopathology?  DSM-IV/DSM-S  Abnormally  Impairment and distress o Psychopathological symptoms  Emotional:  Cognitive: odd belief, delusion  Behavioural: binge, purge, hand washing  Physical: not being able to maintain % body weight, raw hands  Interpersonal: aggressive behaviour  Etiology: study of how they start o What are some reasons that people end up having a mental disorder? o Behavioural principles (learning theory) can explain the etiology of many disorders  Specific/Phobia  Panic disorder  Substance/ alcohol use disorders  Post-traumatic stress disorder  Borderline personality disorder  Anorexia nervosa  Maintenance/Course o Behavioural principles can account for the maintenance of at least some symptoms of most mental disorders  Specific phobia o Etiology  Respondent conditioning  Neutral stimulus (bees) + unconditioned stimulus (sting) unconditioned response (fear/pain)  Conditioned stimulus (bees) conditioned response (fear/anxiety) o Maintenance  Operant conditioning  Being around bees fear/ anxiety (aversive)  Avoiding bees fear/ anxiety is avoided (negative reinforcement)  Borderline personality disorder (come suicide attempts, impulsive, o Etiology  Operant conditioning  Only extreme displays of emotion (behaviour) are attended to by caregivers (positive reinforcement), while lesser displays of emotion are ignored (kids aren’t attended until it’s a 10) o Maintenance  Operant conditioning  Person gets attention/objectives met (positive reinforcement) when using threats and angry outbursts  Self-harm results in a rush of endorphins (positive reinforcement) and a feeling of calm (negative reinforcement)  Alcohol Dependence o Etiology  Operant conditioning  Have several drinks act more social/feel more confident (positive reinforcement)  Have several drinks feel less depressed/anxious/shy (negative reinforcement) o Maintenance  Respondent conditioning  Neutral stimulus (basemen
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