Behavior Modification Chapter 15 Notes
-Recall from Chapter 5 that we distinguished between natural reinforcers, which happen as a normal part of
everyday events, and programmed reinforcers, which are deliberately provided with the goal of increasing
-Using indirect assessment methods to identify reinforcers has some limitations. First, like all self-report
measurements, they may be less accurate than direct methods might be (Northup, 2000). Second, individuals
whose verbal abilities are very limited, such as young children and people with developmental disabilities, may
be unable to answer the questions even when the items are read to them. And third, people who are extremely
depressed may feel that nothing gives them pleasure.
-A good way to determine what consequences will reinforce a person’s behavior is through direct assessment
methods: observing and recording the individual’s reactions toward the stimuli when they occur or are
-First, we can use naturalistic observations—observing the person in his or her natural environments and
recording the frequency and duration of each behavior displayed. The second direct assessment method
involves conducting structured tests—that is, presenting a previously
selected set of stimuli and assessing which ones the person prefers.
-Three approaches can stop people from reinforcing someone’s problem behavior. One way is simply
to describe the situation to them an