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Behavior Modification Chapter 15 Notes.docx

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Amanda Uliaszek

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Behavior Modification Chapter 15 Notes -Recall from Chapter 5 that we distinguished between natural reinforcers, which happen as a normal part of everyday events, and programmed reinforcers, which are deliberately provided with the goal of increasing specific behaviors. -Using indirect assessment methods to identify reinforcers has some limitations. First, like all self-report measurements, they may be less accurate than direct methods might be (Northup, 2000). Second, individuals whose verbal abilities are very limited, such as young children and people with developmental disabilities, may be unable to answer the questions even when the items are read to them. And third, people who are extremely depressed may feel that nothing gives them pleasure. -A good way to determine what consequences will reinforce a person’s behavior is through direct assessment methods: observing and recording the individual’s reactions toward the stimuli when they occur or are available. -First, we can use naturalistic observations—observing the person in his or her natural environments and recording the frequency and duration of each behavior displayed. The second direct assessment method involves conducting structured tests—that is, presenting a previously selected set of stimuli and assessing which ones the person prefers. -Three approaches can stop people from reinforcing someone’s problem behavior. One way is simply to describe the situation to them an
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