8 April 2013
Psychopathology and Psychotherapy
Final 2-4pm Writing in GYM
Theories of Psychopathology
- What defines psychopathology? There is daily functioning distress causes disability, It ranges
very vastly from someone who lost sense in reality to someone how doesn’t get any gratification
in life. There are some ways that we define
- DSMHIV- Psychopathology in the DSM we havea categorization of disorders and symptoms. We
look at abnormality when we think about mental disorders.
- Abnormality- It is the violation of a norm. Sometimes we define is when they are experiencing
impairment or disability, it is statistical infrequency when you a re not normal compare to
majority of individuals in society. But maybe you’re not normal, but does this bother you, you
don’t want to pathologize someone (telling them that something is wrong with them just
because they are not like everyone else.
- Impairment and distress- If you are not impaired or feel distress from a disorder then you
shouldn’t be diagnosed with a disorder, this is why being gay got removed from the DSM.
- Behaviour modification is tied into clinical psychology
- Psychopathology symptoms
- Emotional- emotional symptom of depression is sadness, while the emotional symptom of
- Cognitive- a though is a cognition, what the person is thinking. For obsessive compulsive
disorder it is obsessive thoughts For schizophrenia is would be delusional thought, that isn’t
- Behavioural-a behavioural symptom of bulimia is binging and purging, while for OCD might be
washing your hands
- Physical – in anorexia it might be not being able to maintain your weight. When it is physical I s
it is something that happens to the body.
- Interpersonal- not all disorder have interpersonal symptoms but usually personality disorders
do, can be aggression in borderline personality disorder. People with depression, have more
problems with family and they might get divorced more. Etiology- how mental disorders start.
- You might want know when it started, because when it starts you are able to examine what was
happening right before, and find out the cause. You might also want to take a look at family
- What are some reasons that people end up having a mental disorder?
- We look at genetics, personality, and we look at how behavioural concepts come into play and
cause mental disorder
- Why is it important to study behaviour al causes? This is due to prevention, to alter the
behaviour. It will make the treatment a lot easier. If we can figure out behavioural cause we can
change it. It is also measureable. When we know clear behavioural triggers it makes it easy to
measure. It also often loosen stigmatization
- Behavioural principles theory can explain the etiology of many disorders.
- Specific Phobias
- Panic Disorders
- Sexual Identity Disorder
- Behavioural principles can account for the maintenance of at least some symptoms of most
- The way the disorder starts doesn’t mean it’s the same way it continues.
- Nearly everything has a maintenance. What do we mean maintained behaviourally we are
talking about respondent conditioning and operant conditioning
- Some disorders don’t have specific behavioural principles
- Irrational fear of almost anything
- Arachnid phobia- spiders and bugs fear
- Claustrophobia- fear of tight spaces
- You can develop a specific phobia to basically anything
- Etiology- Respondent conditioning
- Neutral stimulus (bees) + Unconditioned stimulus (sting) -> unconditioned response (fear)
- Conditioned stimulus (bees)-> Conditioned response (fear) anxiety
- A very straight forward way we can develop fear or something.
- IF you were afraid of snakes but you only see it in zoos and you don’t get in contact with them
and nothing has ever happened to you,you wouldn’t be diagnosed with a disorder because it
doesn’t causeyou distress or phobia. But even if you don’t have a disorder you can still be afraid
of snakes because it is through modelling
- Maintenance- Operant conditioning
- Being around bees- fear and anxiety
- Avoid bees- fear and anxiety is avoided (negative reinforcement) - Phobia and anxiety is generally maintained through negative reinforcement. Every time you stay
away from that fear you are making it stronger and stronger.
Borderline Personality Disorder- This is black and white thinking, which is one of the main cognitive
thinking. Most likely they think about cutting and suicidality is a common symptom, a lot of agreession,
drug use and problems with relationship. You get diagnosed around 18 and you have it for a while, there
is often no trigger for it.
- Etiology- Operant conditioning.
- Only extreme displays of emotion (behaviour) are attended to by caregiver (positive
reinforcement), while lesser displays at emotions are ignored.
- The child is saying that she is sad and that she needs help, but the parent is not doing anything
about it because they don’t think that there is nothing wrong with you, but then at 10 they
realize that the child has a problem. Children start acting out at a 10 because that’s how they
get help. Only their extreme behaviours are reinforced. And the child learns that in order for her
to get help they must go to the extreme.
- Profs friend learned that the way she is reinforced is to cry.
- When you are talking about maintenance one of the more effective treatment is