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Lecture 10

Behaviour Modification- Lecture 10- 5th April 2013.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC45 Behaviour Modification Lecture 10 5 April 2013 Final is going to be same as the midterm it is going to have 80-100 questions Ethics and Future Directions Motivational Operations - Motivational opearation either increase or decrease behaviour, it alters effect of a consequence either punishment or reinforcement - They can be broken down into two categories - Can either be estrablishing operation (increases the effectiveness of consequencewhilee abolishing operation (decreases the effectiveness of consequence) - These things can change the value of the effect of the behaviour effect - When we talk about behaviour effect it can either be evocative effect( behaviour occurs more) or the abative effect (thebehaviour decrecreases) - In establishing operation the punishement usually becomes more punishing so then the behaviour goes down, this is an abative effect - We can also take it through abolishing operation, where it makesthe reinforce less effect and then the behaviour goes down, therefore it is also a abative effect - If your punisher is not very effective then the behaviour goes up - Example: You are really thirsty, and the prof is using a glass of water to make you participate, this is a establishing operation, and it makes you want to do the behaviour more. - Example 2: If you are really thirsty, and she brings chips, this is and abolishing operation because you are thirsty and you don’t want the chips this is evocative effect. Ethics in Behaviour Modification - When we talk about ethics there are two types of dilemmas that occur, people might have disagreements with the goal or they might have disagreements on the method that it is being used. Even if there is a good goal are we using appropriate methods - Dilemmas regarding behaviour change goals and behaviour change methods - What do you think about the use of : - Torture; many countries use torture in order to get information, United States tortured people to find out about Osama Bin Laden. Is torture worth it, if you are going to save lots of lives? The goal is agreeable, that we want to avoid people from dying but the method of torturing is good, because is that really okay to torture someone. Does torture actually work, those individuals who are inflicting the torture suffer from psychological disorders. Should psychologists be telling people the methods to torture? NO - The problem with ethics is that there is almost never a right answer, there is always good and bad - Corporal punishment- physical harm to a person in school for example. The goal of school is learning and by hitting them it is not okay. Pairing the corporal punishment with an explanation is a better method. Sometimes having strong punishment want you to escape it (for instance learning to dance and being slapped on the feet might make you want to quit dance). It works very well in the short term but does it effect you in the long term. There is a lot of gray area in corporal punishment , you need to be specific when you are discussing methods and goals, to determine whether it is okay or not. If a parent decide to use corporal punishment the idea is to do it without anger. - Repairative Therapy/ Conversion Therapy - The goal is to change gay to straights - Somepeople argue this point that is it not ethical or possible. They say that it doesn’t work and there is a lot of harm in this type of therapy, and that people actually commit suicide. - However there are some people who say that it does work. - In late 70s homosexuality was seen as a mental disorder, they used shocks and have the person be aroused by someone of the same sex and then they punish them by shocking them - Reparative therapy has been condemned and thought to be harmful of people - However there is this other side, that it works - What if someone really is gay and doesn’t want to be gay anymore do they have the right to do reparative therapy. Are we talking here a controversial goal or a controversial method? This is a controversial goal,to want to change your sexual identity. - If someone comes to you and says that they really want to change, ethically should you participate in it. The research shows that this kind of therapy doesn’t work, in fact these individuals turn gay again. Men usually fall under either gay or straight. Men who define themselves as bisexual are actually more attracted to men. Women are more
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