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Lecture 9

Behaviour Modification- Lecture 9- 22nd March, 2013.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

PSYB45 Behaviour Modification Lecture 9 22 March 2013 Two Types of Antecedents - Discriminative Stimuli- it is a direct antecedent to the behaviour, it makes you do behaviour A and not behaviour B. It is the direct stimulus for the behaviour. It is a stimulus that makes you do one behaviour and one behaviour only - Motivating Operations- it makes a consequence more effective, or increase the likelihood of that behaviour, it changes your environment or mood to make the behaviour stimulus stronger. - They often work together and you see them happening at the same time. Discriminative Stimulus - A cue that sets the occasion for a particular behaviour and consequence - Other stimuli serve as an antecedent for not doing a behaviour (Sdelta) - Discriminative means it leads you to a particular behaviour and not any other behaviour - Stimulus is a type of antecedent, antecedent is more broad. - Example; your phone rings and you answer it, besides answering, you might be calling someone, you might be voice dialing, or modelling. However when the phone rings there is one discriminative behaviour that you do. So if your phone rings there is a multiple things you can do, you can ignore it , throw it against the wall. When you are talking about discriminative stimulus it is what is likelihood for you to answer it. Most likely most people answer the phone. It is a stimulus that points us to the most likely thing to occur. - Example; OCD, the stimulus is feeling anxiety, or touching something contaminated. The discriminative stimulus is touching something contaminated is soemtihng that is directly linked to the behaviour. Feeling anxious isn’t discriminative, it is not the first thing that leads to hand washing. Feeling anxious can result to other results. Stimulus Generalization - Attribute consequence off the discriminative stimulus to other similar stimulus. We can get condition to something and reinforced for it, and then we learn to generalize it to other things. - For example; You don’t learn at five years old that your phone at home is the only phone that rings and has that specific ringtone, you become conditioned that other phones ring too, and if you answer it, then it will be the same behaviour. - Once people develop a strong discriminative stimulus, the stimulus of that feature can be transferred to different environments. Stimulus Control- once that stimulus happens that behaviour is likely to occur and you cant control it. - The behaviour tends to occur mainly in the presence of the cue and the occurrence of the cue is present the behaviour is highly likely to occur. - Example; when someone says hi how are you, you usually say im good how are you. - Example; you wanting to do your homework, but automatically opening up facebook. - Example; when you get in the car you automatically smoke a cigarette - Increase stimulus control- increase the power of the (Sdelta) Sometimes we want to control this stimulus and the behaviour to follow - - > Attention - -> Noticeable - -> Understandable- when you are working with other people, you might want to make it understanding for them, so they are aware of the stimulus. - If you are thinking about increasing a behaviour sometimes you want to think about stimulus control - We have a lot of stimulus control in OCD. It is probably impossible for her to feel anxious and not wash her hands. But it is not incurable. - In disorders the control is so high, that they cant help it. The stimulus is to strong for them not to engage in the behaviour. Prompting - Reminds you or help you to perform a behaviour. Usually it is something extra. - Example; the needle on the gas tank, reminding you that you have to fill up gas - E
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