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Canada (493,754)
Psychology (7,623)
PSYB45H3 (336)
Amanda U. (5)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda U.

• DSM: (Diagnostic Statisical Manual )defines psychopathology for us, characterization of every symptom and disorder. • Abnormality: What makes someone abnormal? Doing something different from the norm, statistical normality so if you fall outside of the average stats of something, different of a typical baseline, • Impairment and Distress: • Symptoms: Emotional: sadness, anxiety ; Cognitive: thinking that you want to die, obsessive thought for OCD, delusional though; Behavioral: (bulimia) binging or purging, (OCD) hand washing; Physical:(anorexia) not being able to maintain 80% of your body weight, (bulimia) knuckle sore; Interpersonal: aggressive behavior • Etiology: Study of how disorders start • Specific Phobias: Agorophobia: avoidance of public places, Acrophobia: fear of heights when we have a phobia we have some kind of natural stimulus which gets paired with an uncondition stimulus like pain, or getting stung or bit etc and even in a single pairing your netural stimulus is a condition, so everytime you see that stimuili like a dog or bee or w.e you pair with the US and get scared. • • Borderline Personality Disorder: looking at the world in black and white, the world is either bad or good, usually the symptoms are suicidal feelings, aggression or anger, self harm. Early childhood experiences: idea that you have a child that is very sensitive which is coupled with neglecting parenting, parents who don’t care about kid, this feeling escalates and then once the kid is older the parent helps, this is operant conditioning because the kids behavior does not get reinforced until feelings like I want to die or I'm really sad happen. Kids start acting out in the 10 level or in a suicidal , or sad level because they feel that’s only when they get attention, the person learns in childhood that in order to get attention, or be taken seriously they have to do this. • Alcohol Dependence: Psychological or physiological dependence on it, more serious , if you think you going to drink one beer but you drink more, you black out a lot and you keep doing it, you always think about drinking, alcohol Abuse is the opposite. If you can still go to work, you still have your relationships, you don’t drink and drive that’s not a disorder. • Tolerance---> respondent conditioning; when you are a chronic drug or alcohol user you
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