What is a behavior?
Different types of Behavior
What is not a behavior
Diagnoses: someone has social phobia. Is it a behavior? No. How would
you make that a behavior? Someone panics when they are around
people, so having a panic attack.
Outcomes of behavior: getting good grades, or losing weight is not a
behavior, instead to make this a behavior you would say study 3 times a
week, or work out.
A behavior you want to decrease means you have a behavior access (
you do too much of it so you want to decrease it). If you do want to do
a behavior more it’s called a behavior deficit (you do too less of a
Difference between behavior modification, behavior analysis, and behavior
Behavior therapist: focuses on one disorder, focus on overt behavior.
Behavior analysis is actually thought as a profession.
When babies are born you have inborn behavior called "reflexes". Two
important reflexes important in feeding is the "rooting reflex and sucking
Behavior modificationers define people by behavior. Usually they focus
on overt measurable behaviors. Although you can use reinforcement
and punishment to change your heart rate which is called bio
feedback, most of the examples we will use in class is brushing your
teeth, punching someone etc. 1) define target, 2) analyze what’s going
on because you want to know why that such thing is going on, 3) you
want to recollect all the data, what’s triggering it, what are the
Behaviors are internal or external responses to a internal or external
events. It can be something that happens inside you or something that
Ex: when Renuka responds to feeling hungry by going to the kitchens
Renuka Is responding to an internal event "feeling hungry". Looking sleepy is not a behavior because that doesn’t mean anything,
it’s an adjective. If you were to describe someone who is sleepy you
would say “her eyes look droopy” or “yawning” or a posture like slopped
posture”. This would be the behavior.
“planned a party” is not a behavior, it’s a series of behavior. It could
mean a lot of things and it’s too broad. You need to be more specific.
“acting respectfully” not a behavior, because being respectful can be
different for everyone. You need to be more specific like “she paid
attention”, “she raised her hand”.
Trait: describe how people behave over a period of time in most
contexts. When you describe a person we use traits like “she’s very
extroverted”, “she’s very meticulous”. It’s not objective, not everyone
shares the same opinion.
“irritable person”-trait; “when he didn’t hold the door for her she got
External aka Overt- Internal aka Covert
Covert vs overt. Overt behavior is where everyone can see you do the
behavior, Covert is internal, and no one can see only you can detect it.
Covert ex. Thoughts, emotions; Overt ex. Clapping. Something
physiological is usually covert behaviors like smelling perfume, heart
Verbal & Motor.
Motor is actions that involve body movement without requiring the use
of language ex. Waving hi; verbal behavior ex. Talking.
Verbal involves the use of language. Verbal involves talking, reading,
involves communication. Sign language would be a combination of
both motor and verbal. Writing a paragraph or doing a crossword
puzzle is also both verbal and motor because it involves communicating
in abstract form.
Volitional vs Involitional. Volitional is voluntary and automatic. Involitional
Parenting skills: parents need behavior modification for parenting skill.
Ex. You take your kid to the store and he screams and says he wants a
choco. A lot of parents will be like fine and buy it for them. Then the kid
is quiet but right now the parent just reinforced a negative behavior of
the kid. A behavior analyst at this point will say “don’t give it the kid”,
then the kid won’t try it again.
Child behavior: if you’re a teacher or therapist, if some kids are noisy
teacher will just ignore the naughty ones and continue teaching the
good ones and even praising the good kids. Oppositional Behavior: kids
with oppositional behavior get lots of attention which is not good.
Developmental Disorder: kids with disorders need application of
Health: Employment: ex, Employee of the month
Pet: People scream at their pet, the pet has no idea why you are
screaming, the owner scream and yells way after the incident (dog
People assumed that you did things because of your unconscious drives
and things that happened to you in your childhood. You did this
because your mother did this to you when you were little.
Pavlov, Skinner, Watson: their theory is that the we do things because of
the product of experience. I just did this because of what just happened
right before and right before.
Modern Psychology : childhood experience is meaningless
Behaviorism: Thoughts are meaningless , observable behavior is more
Rejected psychoanalysis and philosophical concepts.
Rejection of personality: Mischel people only act in a similar way across
very few situations, ppl were more variable in situations than similar.
People just say they have a personality to make ourselves feel better or
give ourselves an identity.
Stimulus: naturally elicits a consequence.
Unconditioned stimulus= unconditioned response ex: food = salivate
Pavlov: ringing of the bell eventually came conditioned. Because he
rang the bell every time he presented the food, the dog salivated even
when hearing the bell. Bell was a neutral stimulus now a conditioned
When pairing neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus the neutral will
become a conditioned stimulus.
**Focused on before (difference btw operant, refer to next section)
In psychopathology : Ex: phobia, snake before was a neutral stimulus it
didn’t scare you but you saw it bite your friend so when the snake got
paired with biting your friend you don’t need to see a snake biting your
friend anymore to get scared to elicit a response. You’re scared without
seeing it bite your friend.
Food Aversion: something you ate that you liked and when you ate that
with the flu and it made you vomit, but now you wont eat it because it
scares you because the flu got paired with that food item
Context-dependent learning: You recall info best if its in the same
context you learned it. Ex: if you learn certain things in lec on Friday
night at class and had a test Monday morning it would be harder to do
the test but easier if the test were on a Friday night. Because all the info
you learn is cued with things that Friday.
Commercials: Why is it when they show ads they show the product with
happy beautiful people? Because now the product that wa