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Introduction to Behaviour Modification.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Behaviour Modification: Chapters 1-3 Introduction What is Behaviour?  Includes what people do and say  Involves the activity of an organism at any level  It is NOT static  “Actions” vs “States” o Actions are what people do while they’re in the state. Behaviour modification doesn’t fix the state but the activities within it. o e.g., Being manic  “Process” vs “Product” o Product = goals. Steps towards goal = process o e.g., Academics Characteristics of Behaviour It can be observed, described, and recorded Has an impact on the environment  Physical  Social Dimensions of Behaviour Duration  How long does the behaviour occur? Frequency  How many times during the observation period does the behaviour occur? Intensity  How intense is the behaviour? Latency  What is the length of time between a stimulus occurring and the behaviour occurring? Characteristics of Behaviour 1. Actions vs labels  Action 2. Physical dimensions (x4) 3. Observed, described, and recorded 4. Environmental impact (x2) 5. Lawful 6. Overt or Covert  Overt: observable actions  Covert: unobservable; within subjects mind Behaviour Modification: Is the field of psychology concerned with the analysis and modification of human behaviour  Involves the systematic application of learned principles and techniques to assess and improve an individual’s covert and/or overt behaviour in order to enhance their functioning. Characteristics of Behaviour 1. Focus on excess / deficit 2. Basic behavioral principles 3. Current environmental events (A B C)  A: antecedence  B: behaviour  C: consequences 4. Clear procedures 5. Behavior change (ST & LT)  ST: short term  LT: long term 6. Ignore the past  We can’t fix the past so we work on fixing the present/future 7. Rejection of underlying causes explanatory fictions 8. Implemented widely In the Media Bourne Identity – behaviour modification does not cause retrograde amnesia as the movie claims Clockwork Orange – watching material while listening to classical music… associated situation with music. A little closer to actual behaviour modification. Common Misconceptions about behaviour modification Punishment focus  95% of behaviour modification is based on reward and positive feedback, not punishment Ignores the real causes of behavior, just treats the symptoms  Think about antecedence, finding reasons for behaviour People control  Ethics do not allow it Intrinsic motivation Dependence on external incentives Behavior modification only works with kids and developmentally challenged individuals People Ivan Pavlov Made dogs salivate at sound of bell, due to an association he built up between food and the bell. Through experimentation he introduced:  Conditioned reflex  Classical conditioning Edward Thorndike Law of Effect: if the behaviour gives a reward, the person will continue to do the behaviour and will become more efficient at it. John Watson Behaviour is only controlled by the environment Stimulus  response psychology Father of Behaviourism – studied only observable behaviour Little Albert: made child afraid of animals because of an association built between animals and a scary bell noise. B.F. Skinner Advanced Behaviourism  Developped procedures so that knowledge could be used in individual cases. Discriminated between Respondent and Operant conditioning  Respondent:  Operant: Basic principles of Operant Behaviour Father of Behaviour Modification Historical Roots 1911 Thorndike - Animal Intelligence (law of effect) 1924 Watson - Behaviorism 1927 Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes 1930’sSkinner - Basic research on behavioral principles 1938 Skinner - Behavior of Organisms 1950'sBehavior modification with humans 1953 Skinner - Science and Human Behavior 1957 Skinner – Verbal Behavior 1958 Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 1963 Behaviour Research and Therapy (journal) 1966 Assoc. for Advancement of Behavior Therapy 1968 Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1970 Behavior Therapy (journal) 1970 Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1977 Behavior Modification (journal) 1977 Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 1978 The Behavior Analyst (journal) 1978 Association for Behavior Analysis 1980 Continued research (basic and applied) 2000’s Functional analysis approach Certification in behavior analysis Areas of Application Developmental disabilities Mental illness Education and Special Education Rehabilitation  Using modification after some sort of accident/event to help with attitude Community psychology Clinical/counseling psychology Observing and Recording Behaviour Types of Behavioural Assessment Indirect – observer is not actual there when behaviour occurs  Interviews  Questionnaires  Rating Scales Direct  Observation and recording of target behaviour in vivo Recording Behaviour 1. Define target behaviour a. Use precise explanations. Identifying exactly what the person says or does. b. Identify what the person does that is a behavioural deficit or excess 2. Identify who, when, and where to record (the logistics of recording) a. Requires close proximity - In person, videotape recording b. The target behaviour(s) are typically recorded by someone other than the one engaging in the behaviour c. Observation period: when the target behaviour is most likely to occur d. Important: Consent must be obtained from the client or client’s parent or guardian e. Observing and recording behaviour can take place in either: Natural settings or contrived (set up situation) settings i. Benefit of natural: representative of behaviour ii. Benefit of contrived: control over situation  Structured observation: the observer coordinates the occurrence of specific events or activities or occur during the period of observation  Unstructured observation: no specific events, activities or instructions are given during the period of observation 3. Choose a recording method a. With Continuous Recording, one can measure: (with this method, it is very intensive, requiring a lot of attention) i. Frequency ii. Duration iii. Intensity iv. Latency (the time between a given stimulus and the onset of a targe
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