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Chapter 6 review.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 6 – Punishment Defining Punishment Punishment: 1. A particular behaviour occurs 2. A consequence immediately follows the behaviour 3. As a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future (The behaviour is weakened) Punisher (aversive stimulus): consequence that makes a particular behaviour less like likely to occur in the future. Defined by its effect on the behaviour that it follows. A stimulus or event is a punisher when it decreases the frequency of the behaviour it follows. You cannot define behaviour by whether the consequence appears unfavorable/unpleasant/aversive. You can conclude that a particular consequence is punishing only if the behaviour decreases in the future. (This is the functional definition) Another point to consider is whether the behaviour decreases for good or only immediately after the punishment. If the behaviour continues in the future, the attempted punishment does not actually work as a punishment but may actually work as a reinforcer.  Example: The child that is scolded for a bad behaviour continues to act badly in the future. The scolding ends up only being a stimulus that ends the behaviour for that moment. A Common Misconception about Punishment When behaviour analysts talk about punishment, they are referring to a process in which the consequence of a behaviour results in a future decrease in the occurrence of the behaviour. Many people define punishment as something used for a person that has committed a crime/other bad behaviour. The punishment involves the hope that the behaviour will cease and that there are elements of retribution/retaliation, meant to hurt the person that committed the crime. Positive and Negative Punishment Positive punishment: 1. The occurrence of a behaviour 2. Is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus 3. And as a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future Negative punishment: 1. The occurrence of a behaviour 2. Is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus 3. And as a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future Positive punishment: A girl is zapped every time she hits herself in the face (presentation of an aversive stimulus) Another type of positive punishment is based on the Premark principle. In this case, the person is made to do a less liked activity after they have done an unwanted behaviour.  Must run laps after acting out in class Negative punishment – this is different from extinction. Extinction = withholding the reinforcer that was maintaining the behaviour. Negative punishment = removing/withdrawing a positive reinforcer after the behaviour, not necessarily the same one that was maintaining the behaviour,  Time-out from positive reinforcement: the person is removed from a reinforcing situation for a brief period after the problem behaviour occurs.  Response cost: something is taken away that was earned o Teens earned tokens for good behaviour. However, if they were late for dinner, they lost the tokens. Other names for positive punishment:  Punishment by application  Punishment by contingent presentation of a stimulus  Punishment by presentation of an aversive stimulus  Response-contingent presentation of a punisher Other names for negative punishment:  Punishment by withdrawal  Punishment by loss of reinforcers  The penalty contingency  Response-contingent removal of a positive reinforcer Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers Unconditioned punishers: events/stimuli that are naturally punishing because avoiding or minimizing contact with these stimuli is for survival.  Painful stimuli/extreme levels of stimuli o Extreme heat/cold, extreme leve
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