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Chapter 8.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Respondent Conditioning Respondent Conditioning: Deals with behaviors that are elicited automatically by some stimulus  Doesn’t produce a new behavior  Causes an existing behavior to occur  Involves reflexive behavior  New stimulus-response sequence is learned Operant vs. Respondent Operant:  Behaviours are controlled by their consequences.  Involves the manipulation of consequences Respondent:  Behaviours are elicited by antecedent stimuli  Involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli Terminology Unconditioned stimulus (US): Natural stimulus producing response Unconditioned response (UR): Unlearned response Examples:  Physical Pain (US) rubbing at painful area (UR)  Throat Irritation (S)clearing the throat (UR)  Food in Mouth (US) chewing (UR)  Bright Light (US covering eyes (UR)  Loud Noise  covering ears (UR) Conditioned stimulus (CS): Originally neutral now elicits reflexive response Conditioned response (CR): Learned reflexive response to conditioned stimulus Principle of Respondent Conditioning A neutral stimulus is followed closely in time by a US (which elicits a UR)… which leads to the previously neutral stimulus eliciting the same response Conditioning Process: US  UR Neutral stimulus (NS) paired with US Outcome: CS  CR After pairing with the US, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that now elicits a conditioned response (CR) Higher Order Conditioning 1st order  Pair NS and US to produce UR  CS will produce CR o Example: Pair bell and food to produce salivation; bell will produce salivation after conditioning 2nd order  Pair NS and CS to produce CR  Produce a new CS which elicits the CR o EX: Pair light with bell to produce salivation; light will produce salivation after conditioning Conditioned Emotional Responses Often involves autonomic nervous system arousal  Increase heart rate, respiration, muscle tension, sweating  Decreased blood flow to skin, gastrointestinal activity  Pupil dilation  Adrenalin secretion However, CER’s can be both positive and negative in valence  Love – loving something because it is associated with something good occurring  Fear – Little Albert Watson & Rayner (1920) Little Albert Fear (e.g., crying & autonomic arousal)  Researchers presented Albert with animals (or animals masks/fur etc.) and then rang a large bell, frightening the child. Albert began to associate the loud noise with the presentation of the animals. This led to him crying at the sight of the animals and fearing them because he expected the loud noise to arrive. Extinction of CRs Present the CS without the US. The CS will no longer elicit a CR. Spontaneous Recovery After respondent extinction has occurred, the CS may once again elicit a CR Discrimination and Respondent Behaviour A single CS or a narrow range of CSs elicit a CR  Example – Pavlov: the dog would be able to tell between the sound of the bell and other sounds. A buzzer would not e
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