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Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4 Developing and Maintaining Behaviour with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned Reinforcers - such stimuli or events, which are usually important for our survival or biological functioning. - Sometimes called “primary” or “unlearned reinforcers.” - Exmaples! food for a hungry person, water for a thirsty person, warmth for someone who is cold, etc. Condition Reinforcers - stimuli that are not originally reinforcing can become reinforcers by being paired or associated with other reinforcers. Stimuli that becomes reinfoers in this way are called condition reinforcers. - Sometimes called secondary or learned reinforcers - Examples! praise, a picture of a loved one, books we like to read, favourite tv programs, and clothes that make us looks good, etc. Backup reinforcers - when a stimulus becomes a reinforcer through association with other reinforcers -Some conditioned reinforcers, called tokens, can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers. A behaviour modification program in which individuals can earn tokens for specific behaviours and can cash in their tokens for backup reinforcers is called a token system. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 1) The Strength of Backup Reinforcers - the reinforcing power of a condition reinforcer depends in part on the reinforcing power of th e backup reinforcers(s) on which it is based. 2) The Variety of Backup Reinforcers - Simple conditioned reinforcer- a conditioned reinforcer that is paired with a single backup reinforcer - Generalized conditioned reinforcer- a stimulus that is paired with many different kinds of backup reinforcers. - The reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the number of different backup reinforcers available for it. 3) The Schedule of Pairing with the Backup Reinforcer - Conditioned reinforcement is more effective is a backup reinforcer does not follow each occurrence of the condition reinforcer. Ex! Coach Dawson’s www.notesolution.com program had to earn a certain number of points before they were given backup reinforcement. 4) Extinction of the Condition Reinforcer - For a conditioned reinforcer to remain effectice, it must continue to be associated with a suitable backup reinforcer, at least occasionally. - Ceasing to provide backup reinforcement for a conditioned reinforcer is called extinction of a conditioned reinforcer. Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement www.notesolution.comChapter 4 Developing and Maintaining Behaviour with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned Reinforcers - such stimuli or events, which are usually important for our survival or biological functioning. - Sometimes called primary or unlearned reinforcers. - Exmaples food for a hungry person, water for a thirsty person, warmth for someone who is cold, etc. Condition Reinforcers - stimuli that are not originally reinforcing can become reinforcers by being paired or associated with other reinforcers. Stimuli that becomes reinfoers in this way are called condition reinforcers. - Sometimes called secondary or learned reinforcers - Examples praise, a picture of a loved one, books we like to read, favourite tv programs, and clothes that make us looks good, etc. Backup reinforcers - when a stimulus becomes a reinforcer through association with other reinforcers -Some conditioned reinforcers, called tokens, can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers. A behaviour modifica
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