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Lecture 14

Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 14

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Christian Campbell

Chapter 14 Procedures based on principles of Respondent Conditioning Operant versus Respondent Behavior - Operant conditioning- behaviour that operates on the environment can be modified its consequences. - Consequences that cause behaviour to increase are called reinforcers, and those that cause it to decrease are called punishers. - Operant Behaviours- behaviours that operate on the environment to generate conswquences, are are in turn controlled bny those consequences. Examples putting gas in your car, asking for directions, writing an exam, etc. - Respondent Behaviours- more like innate behaviours that are just occur without controlling them. Example being frightened when watching a scary movie, drooling when you smell food, becoming sexually aroused when you what porn, etc. - A respondent condition is also called Pavlovian Conditioning. Principle of Respondent Conditioning - The respondent conditioning principle is based on the fact that certain stimulus automatically elicit certain responses apart form any prior learning or conditioning experience. These automatic stimulus-response relationship[s are called unconditioned reflexes (unconditioned because they elicit responses WITHOUT NO PRIOR LEARNING) - Unconditioned stimulus (US) - a stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning. - Unconditioned Response (UR)-a response elicited by such a stimulus (the US). - Neutral Stimulus- A particular stimulus that alone does not elicit a response, but when paired with a stimulus that does elicit a response (ex. Food), then it will elicit a response (UR= salivation) - The principle of Respondent Conditioning states that if that neutral stimulus (bell sounds) is followed closely in time by a US (food in mouth) which elicits a UR (salivation, then the previously neutral stimulus becomes he conditioned stimulus (CS), which elicits a conditioned response (CR) (salivation to the sound of the bell). Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning 1) the greater the number of pairing of a CS with a US, the greater the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until a maximum strength of a condition reflex has been reached. 2) Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a second, rather than by a longer or rather than following the US. 3) A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with a given US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US.
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