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Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 23

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Doing research in Behaviour Modification -A minimal behaviour modification program has four phases: 1) Screening phase- for clarifying the problem and determining who should treat it. 2) Baseline phase- for determining the initial level of the behavior prior to the program. 3) Treatment phase- in which the intervention strategy is initiated 4) Follow up Phase- for evaluating the persistence of the desirable behavioral changes following termination of the program. Reversal- Replication (ABAB) design - Trying to see whether the program itself actually allocated to the improvement of the individual’s behaviour (Billie’s improved behaviour at solving math problems). - Reversal-replication research design- it includes a reversal (going back to the baseline to see if it was the actually treatment that made an improvement on behaviour) to baseline conditions followed by replicated of the treatment phase (and, it is hoped, of the effect). - The baseline is abbreviated “A” and the treatment condition “B”. Hence the treatment is called ABAB design. - Questions that might be encountered when conducting the ABAB design: 1) How long should the baseline treatment be? 2) How many reversals and replications are necessary? - When trying to figure out which baseline graphs are the best and most adequate, you look at the pattern of behaviour that appears to be stable and predictable. Also you look to see the trend is in a direction opposite to the effect predicted for the independent variable acting on the dependent variable. Ideally then, a baseline phase should continue until the pattern of performance is stable or until it shows a trend in the direction opposite to that predicted when the independent variable is introduced. - It is unethical to prolong the baseline phase if it’s in the context of that the targeting behaviour is an abusive one. - For the second question, if one observed a very large effect when the independent variable is introduced, and if the area is one that has been explored before, then one replication may be sufficient. - Other combinations of factors might lead one to conduct several replications in order to convincingly demonstrate a cause-effect relationship. - Limitations posed on doing a reversal-replication design: 1) It may be undesirable to reverse to baseline conditions following a treatment phase. When treating abusiveness of a child with a developmental disability, for example, it would be ethically unacceptable to reverse to baseline immediately following a successful treatment. www.notesolution.com 2) It may be impossible to obtain a reversal due to behavioral trapping. As we saw in chapter 16, we described how a shy child might be taught to interact with his peers; once the teacher’s reinforcement produces the desirable interaction, the child’s behavior might be “trapped” and maintained by attention from his peers after the withdrawal of the teacher’s attention. Multiple-Baseline Designs - Are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a particular treatment without reversing to baseline conditions - This design calls for the introduction of the treatment sequentially cross two or more behaviors ( Ex! recording Billie’s number of correct math problems, as well as number of correct spelled words during English class, and sentence writing in creative writing class). The extra minute of reinforcement per correct answer might be introduced in the math class while the baseline condition was continued during the spelling and writing classes. Then teacher might introduce the reinforcement in the English class, and then lastly to the writing class. - Good demonstration of the control of the treatment over several behaviors. - Application of this design assumes that the behaviours are relatively independent. Multiple-Baseline across Situations - another variety of multiple baseline design studies the effects of a treatment on a single behaviour that occurs in several situations. - Example! Mike is diagnosed with “minimally brain damage” and had these unusual verbalizations that interfered with his interactions with his peers at summer camp. During initial baseline phases, data were collected on the verbalizations in four different situations: during trail hiking, dinner, class and play time. ! the treatment- the extinction program in which these verbalizations were ignored, was then introduced in the first situation (hiking), while the remaining three situations continued on baseline. Following successful reduction of verbalizations during hiking, the next situation enforced the extinction program, while the other two remaining programs were continued on baseline. This was continued until all four situations have been treated with the extinction program. Overall, Mike’s verbalizations have been reduced to nearly zero. Multiple Baselines across People - this demonstrates the effectiveness of a treatment by applying it sequentially to individuals - Example! demonstrating the effectiveness of a combination of procedures (called a treatment package) designed to improve public speaking. - Public speaking skills of three individuals were recorded during an initial public speaking session. The first individual was then given the treatment www.notesolution.com package while other two continued on baseline. Exposure to treatment package improved the speaking sills of the first individual. Continued this method with the next to individuals and both also improved on their public speaking skills. ! This demonstration of improvement in individuals who receive treatment sequentially across time is a convincing demonstration of the effectiveness of a treatment program. The Changing-Criterion Design - Another way to demonstrate the control a particular treatment has on behavior is to introduce successive changes in the behavioral criterion for application of the treatment! changing-criterion design. - If the behavior changes in a consistent direction each time change is made in the criterion for application of the treatment, then we can conclude that the treatment was responsible for one change in behavior. - Example! demonstrated the effects of a token reinforcement system on exercising with 11 year old boys. After a baseline phase, token reinforcement was given at increasingly larger levels of ratio reinforcement (that is, the mean response requirement of number of pedals became increasingly larger). ! Every time a boy would reach the required number of pedal cycles, he would be given a token which can be cashed in for reinforcement. The number of consecutive pedals would increase higher and higher in order to get the next token. Alternating-Treatments (Or Multielement) Design - If you want to compare the effects of different treatment for a single behavior on a single individual, you would use this treatment design. - This design involved alternating two or more treatment conditions considerably more rapidly than would be done n a reversal-replication design. Data Analysis and Interpretation - A concept related to practical importance is that of social validity. Behavior modifiers need to socially validate their work on at least three levels: 1) They must examine the extent to which target behaviours identified for treatment programs are really the most important for the client and society. 2) They must be concerned with the acceptability to the client of the particular procedures used, especially when alternative procedures can accomplish approx. the same results. 3) They must ensure that the consumers (the clients and their caregivers) are satisfied with the results. www.notesolution.comDoing research in Behaviour Modification -A minimal behaviour modification program has four phases: 1) Screening phase- for clarifying the problem and determining who should treat it. 2) Baseline phase- for determining the initial level of the behavior prior to the program. 3) Treatment phase- in which the intervention strategy is initiated 4) Follow up Phase- for evaluating the persistence of the desirable behavioral changes following termination of the program. Reversal- Replication (ABAB) design - Trying to see whether the program itself actually allocated to the improvement of the individuals behaviour (Billies improved behaviour at solving math problems). - Reversal-replication research design- it includes a reversal (going back to the baseline to see if it was the actually treatment that made an improvement on behaviour) to baseline conditions followed by replicated of the treatment phase (and, it is hoped, of the effect). - The baseline is abbreviated A and the treatment condition B. Hence the treatment is called ABAB design. - Questions that might be encountered when conducting the ABAB design: 1) How long should the baseline treatment be? 2) How many reversals and replications are necessary? - When trying to figure out which baseline graphs ar
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