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Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 27

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Christian Campbell

Chapter 27 Cognitive Behaviour Modification Cognition- means belief, thought, expectancy, attitude, or perception. - Cognitive therapists regard their approach to be primarily that of helping a client overcome his or her difficulties by getting rid of an unproductive, debilitating thoughts or beliefs and adopting more constructive ones. -We have organized the different procedures referred to as cognitive or cognitive behavior modification into three categories: 1) Treatment that emphasize cognitive restructuring to decrease maladaptive thoughts that are assumed to cause troublesome emotions 2) Self-directed strategies to enhance overt coping skills 3) Treatments that include mindfulness, acceptance, and values as important components of therapy. Cognitive Restructuring Methods - An assumption to cognitive therapy is that individuals interpret and react to event in terms of their perceived significance; that is, our beliefs, expectations, and attitudes affect our behavior. - Cognitive deficiencies can cause emotional disorders. - Many therapists believe that faulty thinking is the cause of emotional and behavioral problems, and the primary focus of their approach to therapy is to change faulty thinking. This is called cognitive restructuring. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) - Created by Ellis - Emotional problems (and related behaviors) stem from irrational interpretations (ex I always screw things up! I never do things right!) that people make of events in their lives. People tend to think in absolute terms, such as a student thinking, I must do well in all my courses. - They tend to over generalize such as a student thinking after getting a poor mark on one exam, Ill never be a good student. - People also tend to catastrophize: they tell themselves that things are so horrible they cant possible stand it. - The therapists approach to this is to counteract the clients irrational self- statement with more positive and realistic statement. This is accomplished through the three main phrases 1) The therapist helps the client to identify troublesome thoughts that are based on irrational beliefs. 2) In a very confrontational, argumentative way, the therapist vigorously challenges the clients irrational beliefs that are thought to be the basis for the problematic self-talk. 3) The client is taught (through modeling and homework assignments) to replace the irrational self-statement with statement based on rational beliefs. www.notesolution.comUses in vivo behavioral homework assignments, which are designed to help the client challenge irrational beliefs and to confront troublesome emotions head on. Becks Cognitive Therapy - Developed by Aaron T. Beck in 1976. it was similar to REBT. It was originally developed for the treatment of depression. - According to Beck, people with emotional disorders engage excessively in aberrant, fallacious, or dysfunctional thinking, and this is what causes their problems. - Examples of dysfunctional thinking: 1) Dichotomous Thinking- which is thinking in absolute terms: Ex assume that one is a failure if one gets any grade less than an A. 2) Arbitrary Inference- which is drawing conclusions on the basis of inadequate evidence: Ex misinterpreting a frown on a face of a passerby to mean that that person hates you, when really they could be frowning about something else or to someone else. 3) Overgeneralization- which is reaching a general conclusion on the basis of too few instances: Ex assuming that a single failure means the one cannot success at anything. 4) Magnification-which is exaggerating the meaning or significance of a particular event: Ex believing that it is terrible or catastrophic not to obtain something that one wants very badly. - Becks procedure
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