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Lecture

Lecture Note For Chapter 4, come and see

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4: Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers ! Unconditioned reinforcers: stimuli or events which are important for our survival or biological functioning—these are reinforcing without being conditioned—also known as primary or unlearned reinforcers o Examples: food for hungry people, water for thirsty, warmth for someone who is cold ! Conditioned reinforcers: stimuli that are not originally reinforcing can become reinforcers by being paired or associated with other reinforcers—conditioning is needed to establish such stimuli as reinforcers—also known as secondary or learned reinforcers o Examples: praise, a picture of a loved one, clothes that make use look good ! When stimulus becomes a reinforcer through association with other reinforcers, the other reinforcer are sometimes called backup reinforcers—these can be conditioned or unconditioned reinforcers ! Honors and praise were likely paired with other reinforcers; in addition, they likely still are occasionally backed up by reinforcers in the natural environment ! Positive reinforcers have a direct-acting effect on behavior that immediately preceded them ! Some conditioned reinforcers, called tokens, can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers; BM program in which individual can earn tokens for specific behaviors and can cash in their tokens for backup reinforcers is called token system ! Praise is another conditioned reinforcer; it cant be accumulated; praise is usually established as a conditioned reinforcer during childhood, but it continues to be maintained as one for adults ! Main advantage of using conditioned reinforcers in a BM program is that they often can be delivered more immediately than the backup reinforcer can; they help to bridge delays between behavior and more powerful reinforcers ! Conditioned punishment: similar to that of conditioned reinforcement; stimulus that is paired with reinforcement becomes reinforcing itself, so a stimulus that is paired with punishment becomes punishing itself o Examples: “no” and “stop that”—often followed by punishment if the individual continues to engage in the behavior that provoked them Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 1) Strength of Backup Reinforcers ! Reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the reinforcing power of the backup reinforcers on which it is based 2) The variety of Backup reinforcers ! Stimulus can become a conditioned reinforcer because of pairing with a single backup reinforcer ! Conditioned reinforcer that is paired with a single backup reinforcer is called simple conditioned reinforcer (e.g. air miles; subway token; coupon for a free burger) ! A stimulus that is paired with many different kinds of backup reinforcers is referred to as generalized conditioned reinforcer (child and parent relationship; money; praise; gift certificate for food and beverage at a restaurant) ! Reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the number of different back up reinforcers available for it; if there are many different back up reinforcers available, then at any given time at least one of them will probably be strong enough to maintain tokens at a high reinforcing strength for any individual in that program 3) The schedule of pairing with the backup reinforcer ! Conditioned reinforcement is more effective if a backup reinforcer does not follow each occurrence of the conditioned reinforcer 4) Extinction of the conditioned reinforcer ! For a conditioned reinforcer to remain effective, it must continue to be associated with a suitable backup reinforcer, at least occasionally www.notesolution.com ! Ceasing to provide backup reinforcement for a conditioned reinforcer is called extinction of a conditioned reinforcer and is similar to procedure for extinguishing a response Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement ! People unfamiliar with the principles can unknowingly misapply it in various ways ! One common misapplication is an adult that scolds the child for behaving inappropriately but a) does not provide an type of back up punisher; 2) does not reinforce desired alternative behavior ! Attention that accompanies negative verbal stimuli may even be highly reinforcing, especially for individuals with developmental handicaps who often do not receive such attention from adults—scolding and other negative verbal stimuli can become conditioned reinforcers and the individual will behave inappropriately to obtain them ! Even stimuli that are normally punishing can become conditioned reinforcers thru association with powerful primary reinforcers Another Pitfall ! Extinction of a conditioned reinforcer can be unknowingly applied with unfortunate result by those who are unfamiliar with this aspect of conditioned reinforcement ! Failure to use effective backup reinforcers can account for lack of motivation from certain token systems Guidelines for the effective use of conditioned reinforcement 1) Conditioned reinforcer should be a stimulus that can be managed and administered easily in the situation in which you plan to use it 2) Use the same conditioned reinforcers that the individual will encounter in the natural environment 3) In early stages of establishing a conditioned reinforcer, backup reinforcer should be presented as quickly as possible after the presentation of the conditioned reinforcer, later the delay be/w the conditioned reinforcer and backup reinforcer can be increased gradually if desired 4) Use generalized conditioned reinforcers whenever possible; use many different types of backup reinforcers, not just one; this way, at least one of the backup reinforcer will probably be strong enough at any given time to maintain the power of the conditioned reinforcer 5) When program involves more than one individual, avoid destructive competition for conditioned and backup reinforcers; if one person receives reinforcement to the detriment of another, that may evoke aggressive behavior in the second individual or cause his desirable behavior to extinguish—one should avoid making an issue out of the fact that one individual is earning more conditioned and backup reinforcement than another—people differ in their abilities, but the bad effects of these differences can be minimized by designing programs so that each individual earns a good deal of reinforcement for performing at his or her own level 6) One should follow same rules for conditioned reinforcers that apply to any positive reinforcer www.notesolution.comChapter 4: Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Unconditioned reinforcers: stimuli or events which are important for our survival or biological functioningthese are reinforcing without being conditionedalso known as primary or unlearned reinforcers o Examples: food for hungry people, water for thirsty, warmth for someone who is cold Conditioned reinforcers: stimuli that are not originally reinforcing can become reinforcers by being paired or associated with other reinforcersconditioning is needed to establish such stimuli as reinforcersalso known as secondary or learned reinforcers o Examples: praise, a picture of a loved one, clothes that make use look good When stimulus becomes a reinforcer through association with other reinforcers, the other reinforcer are sometimes called backup reinforcersthese can be conditioned or unconditioned reinforcers Honors and praise were likely paired with other reinforcers; in addition, they likely still are occasionally backed up by reinforcers in the natural environment Positive reinforcers have a direct-acting effect on behavior that immediately preceded them Some conditioned reinforcers, called tokens, can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers; BM program in which individual can earn tokens for specific behaviors and can cash in their tokens for backup reinforcers is called token system Praise is another conditioned reinforcer; it cant be accumulated; praise is usually established as a conditioned reinforcer during childhood, but it continues to be maintained as one for adults Main advantage of using conditioned reinforcers in a BM program is that they often can be delivered more immediately than the backup reinforcer can; they help to bridge delays between behavior and more powerful reinforcers Conditioned punishment:
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