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Lecture Note For Chapter 7, come and see

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Christian Campbell

Chapter 7: Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Schedules used to decrease or eliminate responding that is inappropriate Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL): Reinforcement occurs only when responding is occurring at a low rate, responding will subsequently tend to occur at a low rate One type of DRL is called limited responding DRL: it specifies a maximum allowable number of responses during a certain time interval in order for reinforcement to occurhave to specify interval, when reinforcement will be given and it would occur if it contained fewer than a specified number responses o Maximum allowable number of responses for reinforcement to occur can be specified for an entire session, or for separate intervals throughout the session o It is useful when two conditions hold (1) some of the behavior is tolerable and (2) less of it is better Another type of DRL is called spaced- responding DRL: requires that a specified behavior does not occur during a specific interval, and after the interval has passed, that an instance of that behavior must then occur for reinforcement o Instances of specified behavior must be spaced out over time o Useful when behavior you want to reduce is actually desirable, provided that it does not occur at too high a rate o Target response before the interval has passed causes the timing of the interval to start over again o If you want 1 response in 15 minute interval it is called spaced-responding DRL 1-response/ 15 minutes schedule o Requires that response be emitted in order for reinforcement to occur o Can use this to decrease speed of speaking and eating rate Differential Reinforcement for Zero Responding (DRO): Schedule in which reinforcer is presented only if a specified response does not occur during a specified period of time Target response before that interval has passed causes timing of the interval to start over again Differential reinforcement of other responding: given reinforcement for doing anything other than undesirable behavior DRO schedules have been used successfully to decrease a variety of target behaviors, such as inappropriate behavior in classrooms or self-injurious behavior of persons with developmental disabilities If undesirable behavior occurs often and for long intervals, it would be wise to begin with a DRO short durationsize of DRO should continue to be increased until (a) behavior is occurring very rarely or not at all and (b) a minimum amount of reinforcement is being given for its nonoccurrence Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding: Specify explicitly an incompatible response that is to be reinforced in eliminating a particular target response o Incompatible response: response that cannot be emitted at the same time as the target response (e.g. sitting and standing) If we decide to decrease a target response by withholding reinforcers for it (if we know this source and block them) and reinforcing an incompatible response, the schedule is referred to as DRI: differential reinforcement of incompatible responding Example: want to stop running around in class so might use DRI and specify the incompatible behavior that is to be reinforced such as reinforce sitting quietly Allen and Stokes applied DRI to strengthen the incompatible behavior of being still and quiet while children were being treated in a dentists chair Other example: arriving late to classes; incompatible behavior to increase would be arriving to class on time Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior DRA is a procedure that involves extinction of a problem behavior combined with reinforcing a behavior that is topographically dissimilar to, but not necessarily incompatible with, the problem behavior
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