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Chapter 25

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Chapter 25: Cognitive BM  BM is often focused on analyzing/modifying overt (observable) behaviours o however some behaviours are covert (unobservable)  ie. the physiological response associated with fear/anxiety  aka cognitive behaviour  however term ‘cognitive’ is not favored in behaviour analysis for a variety of reasons  however widely used inclinical psychology and behaviour therapy  Examples of Cognitive BM o anger o paying attention (ADD, ADHD)  Defining Cognitive BM o procedures are used to help ppl change behaviour that are labeled as cognitive o Cognitive Behaviour  identify and define in objective terms the behaviour  b/c cognitive behaviours are covert, they cannot be observed directly and recorded by an independent observer  rather tha person engaging in the cognitive behaviour must identify the occurrence of specific thoughts or self-statements b/c they are covert  ‘verbal or imaginal responses made by the person that are covert’  examples  thinking  talking  solving problems  evaluating themselves  planning  imagining  we must work with client to objectively define the behaviour  ie. specific thoughts she thinks at a particular time  a label for the behaviour is not a behavioural definition o ie. saying a person has low self-esteem (label) o ie. negative self- statements of  I’m fat, nobody likes me etc (cognitive behaviour)  cognitive behaviours that are TBs in BM include behavioural excesses and behavioural deficits o Functions of Cognitive Behaviour  can be distressing to the person  may function as a CS that elicits an unpleasant CR  ie. fearful thoughts, angry thoughts  can function as a discriminative stimulus (SD) for desirable behaviours  ie. reciting a rule/self-instruction may help person engage in a desirable behaviour o ie. turn left on queen  can function as motivating operations that influence the power of consequences to function as reinforcers/punishers  ie. how we talk to ourselves about events in our lives may change the value of those events as reinforcers/punishers  ie. if you think your boss is a rotten person, his praise won’t mean much vs. if you like him, praise will mean a lot  can function as reinforcing/punishing consequences when they follow some other behaviour  ie praise/critical statements made by a person can serve as reinforcers/punishers for the person’s own behaviour o In this chapter, term thought is used to refer to a cognitive behaviour (thinking, self-statements, self-talk)  Cognitive BM Procedures o used to help ppl change cognitive behaviours o some designed to replace specific maladaptive cognitive behaviours with more adaptive ones  cognitive restructuring  used in the case of behavioural excesses o when maladaptive cognitive behaviours contribute to a problem  therapist helps client identify cognitive behaviours that are distressing then helps client get ride of these thoughts or replace them with more desirable thoughts  distressing thoughts o might be those that elicit emotional responses  ie. fear, anxiety, anger o might be those associated with unpleasant moods, problem behaviours, poor performance  3 basic steps o Helping the client identify the distressing thoughts and the situations in which they occur  ask client  relies on client’s memory  have client self-monitor  write a description of the situation as they occur o Helping the client identify the emotional response, unpleasant mood, or problem behavioiur that follows the distressing thought  client can see how the distressing thought is an antecedent to the unpleasant emotional response, mood, or problem behaviour  relies on memory or self-monitoring (data sheet) o Helping the client stop thinking the distressing thoughts by helping the client think more rational or desirable thoughts  when thinking rational/desirable thoughts, client is less likely to have negative emotional responses or to engage in problem behaviours  however not easy  cognitive restructuring typically done by psychologists or other professionals with specific training  therapist challenges the client’s distressing thoughts by asking questions that make the client analyze the logic or rationality of the thoughts or interpret the situation differently  Cognitive Therapy o there are different variations of cognitive restructuring  rational-emotive therapy  systematic rational restructuring  cognitive therapy  which this chapter focuses on o David Burns provides description of cognitive therapy for depression based on the work of Aaron Beck  Burns uses cognitive therapy, a form of cognitive restructuring  ppl who are depressed engage in fewer reinforcing activities than they used to and engage in a type of distorted thinking in which they negatively evaluate or interpret events in their lives  therapy  first get person to engage in more reinforcing activities  use cognitive restructuring to help the person change his/her distorted thinking
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