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Ch 15 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Ch 15-b45 Differential reinforcement procedures which involve applying reinforcement and extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behvavior or to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviors. Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior it is a behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors. DRA involves combining reinforcement for a desirable behavior and extinction of undesirable behaviors. DRA is an effective way to increase a desirable behavior because, by decreasing an interfering behavior through extinction, it creates an opportunity for the desirable behavior to occur and be reinforced. When to use DRA DRA is a procedure for strengthening a desirable behavior. However the desirable behavior must be occurring at least occasionally. As shaping or prompting are used initially to evoke the behavior, DRA may then be used to streghten and maintain the behavior. Must be able to identify a reinforce that you can use each time. If you cannot identify a reinforce or if you have no control over the reinforce you cannot use DRA. How to use DRA 1. Define desirable behavior: a clear definition of the desirable behavior helps ensure that you are reinforcing the correct behavior and allows you to record the behavior to determine whether treatment is successful. 2. Define the undesirable behaviors:a clear behavioral definition of the undesirable behaviors helps ensure that you are not using reinforcement when the undesirable behaviors occurs. Record the undesirable behaviors to determine whether they decrease after DRA. 3. Identify the reinforcer: reinforcers may be different for different people. It is important to determine a reinforce specific to the person with whom you are working. Use the reinforce that is currently maintaining the undesirable behavior, you already know that this reinforce is effective. Premack principle: use the opportunity to engage in high frequency or preferred behavior as a reinforce for a low frenquency behavior. Make each potential reinforce contingent on an operant response. If the frequency or duration of the response increases when a stimulus is contingent on the response you have demonstrated that the stimulus is a reinforcer.
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