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PSYB45 Chapter 2

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 2 Observing and Recording Behaviour Behavioural assessment: is a tool that is used to measure the target behaviour in behaviour modification and it is important for the following: o To provide info to determine whether treatment is necessary o To provide info to help you choose the best treatment o To determine if the behaviour changed after the treatment was implemented Two typed of behavioural assessment: 1. Indirect assessment: involving using interviews, questionnaires, and rating scales to obtain info on the target behaviour from the person exhibiting the behaviour or from others (e.g teachers, parents..etc). Not very accurate and relies on an individual’s recall of target behaviour 2. Direct assessment: a person observes and records the target behaviour as it occurs, much more reliable and can also use video cameras and must have a precise definition of the target behaviour Example: when a psychologist observes a socially withdrawn child on the play ground and records each interaction, the psychologist is using direct assessment; but when he/she interviews the teacher and asks about the frequency of child interaction with other children, he/ she is using indirect assessment. Steps needed to develop a behaviour recording plan: 1. Defining the target behaviour 2. Determining the logistics of recording 3. Choosing a recording method 4. Choosing a recording instrument Defining the target behaviour  Indentify what the person says or does  Using active verbs to describe the target behaviour  Should be objective and unambiguous  Should not refer to any internal state(cannot observed)  Avoid the use of labels (cannot be observed ) Interobserver reliability (IOA):when two independent people observe and record the same behaviour and both agreed that behaviour has occurred. The logistics of recording The Observer  Target behaviour should be observed by an independent observer or by a video camera  The person must have proximity to the client to observe the behaviour  The person must have the time allotted to observing and recording the target behaviour  The observer is sometimes observing and recording his/ her own behaviours, self monitoring . *Very useful when it is not possible to record the behaviour by another person or when the behaviour occurs infrequently  Self monitoring can be combined with direct observation for optimum results When and where to record  Target behaviour must be recorded during a specific time period called observation period  timing is determined by the observer as well as the client’s activities or preferences, and the client and client’s parents should be given a consent when observing without client’s knowledge  observation can take place in: Natural setting=consists of the places in which the target behaviour typically occur, e.g a classroom. Advantage- observation is representative of the target behaviour Analogue setting= consists of places that are not typical for the target behaviour to occur, e.g a clinic Advantage- variables are well manipulated  observation can be : Structured= the observer arranges for a specific events or activities to occur during the observation period (e.g ask parent to make specific requests of the child) Unstructured=no specific events or activities are arranged and no instructions are given during the observation period Choosing a recording method types: 1. continuous recording 2. percentage of opportunities 3. product recording 4. interval recording 5. time sample recording Continuous recording  the observer observes the client continuously throughout the observation period and records each occurrence of the behaviour  involves: frequency (or rate responses/time) , duration(or real-time recording) , intensity (rating scale 1-5), and latency (e.g the time it takes a person to answer the phone after it starts ringing) *how does latency differ from duration? Latency is the time from some stimulus to the onset of the behaviour whereas duration is the time from the onset of the behaviour to its offset. Baseline: is the period during which the target behaviour is recorded before the treatment is implemented Percentage of opportunities  the observer records the occurrence of the behaviour in relation to some other events , res
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