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Chapter 1&2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Behaviour Modification: Origins and Applications Chapter 1: Introduction What is Behaviour? • Behaviour: – Includes what people do and say – Things that we can we objectively and observe from a third person standpoint – Involves the activity of an organism at any level  Muscle contractions  Glandular activities  Electrical activities (activities within the nervous system) • Behaviour: – It is NOT static; behaviour is a verb, its an activity – It involves “actions” and not “states” or “label”  Being angry (state)  Screaming at your sibling (associated activity) – It refers to the “process” and not the “product”  Getting an “A” in this course (product)  Studying effectively (process) Characteristics of Behaviour • It can be observed, described, and recorded • Has an impact on the environment – Physical – Social • Involves physical dimensions Dimensions of Behaviour  Duration – Running on a treadmill for 45 minutes – Objectively measured  Frequency – Running three times per week  Intensity – Running at Level 8 on a treadmill Characteristics of Behaviour  It is Lawful – Functional relationship between behaviour and the environment – There is a direct relationship that can be measure – Its quantifiable  May be Overt or Covert – Covert is not visible; it’s within us – Overt is visible to us Characteristics of Behaviour 1. Involves actions not labels 2. Involves physical dimensions • frequency • duration • intensity 3. Can be observed, described, and recorded 4. Has an impact on the environment (physical or social) 5. Behaviour is lawful 6. May be overt or covert Behaviour Modification • Definition: is the field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behaviour – Analyzing being that we measure and understanding the behaviour that is taking place – Modifying is the implement principles and techniques to affect that behaviour whether to be behaviour excess (behaviour that occurs too often, not necessarily a good behaviour. E.g., nail biting ) or behaviour deficits (something we may want to improve. E.g., studying) • Alternative definition: involves the systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individual’s covert and overt behaviours in order to enhance their functioning Characteristics of Behaviour Modification 1. Focus on: • behavioural excesses or deficits 2. Based on basic behavioural principles 3. Emphasis on current environmental events • ABC phenomena – antecedents that preceded the behaviour – behaviour that takes place or do not take place – consequences that follow the behaviour or follow after that particular behaviour of an individual • in the current we can be accurate with our behaviour, be accurate with the implementation of a given intervention • if we rely on past events, we’re relying on memory which is faulty 4. Procedures are clearly described 5. Measurement of behaviour change • immediate and long term 6. No emphasis on the past 7. Rejection of underlying causes • explanatory fictions • medical model vs. behavioural model 8. Treatment implemented by people in everyday life Common Misconceptions About Behaviour Modification • Relies on punishment • Uses bribes • Simplistic • Ignores the real causes of behaviour, just treats the symptoms • Leads to people controlling each other • Ruins intrinsic motivation – Doing something you want to • Makes people dependent on external incentives • Dehumanizes people • Behaviour modification only works with kids and developmentally challenged individuals Historical Roots • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) • Through experimentation he introduced: – Conditioned reflex – Respondant conditioning – Also known as classical conditioning Historical Roots • Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) • Law of Effect: A behaviour that produces a favourable effect on the environment is more likely to be repeated in the future • Operant conditioning involves a consequences that’s implemented on the subject Historical Roots • John Watson (1878-1958) • Behaviour: is only controlled by the environment • Stimulusresponse psychology • Little Albert experiments – Fear is not inherent, it’s not innate • Father of Behaviourism Historical Roots • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) • Advanced Behaviourism • Discriminated between Respondant and Operant conditioning • Basic principles of Operant Behaviour • Father of Behaviour Modification Historical Roots of Behaviour Modification 1911 Thorndike - Animal Intelligence (law of effect) 1924 Watson - Behaviourism 1927 Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes 1930’s-40’s Skinner - Basic research on behavioural principles 1938 Skinner - Behaviour of Organisms 1950's Behaviour modification with humans 1953 Skinner - Science and Human Behaviour 1957 Skinner – Verbal Behaviour 1958 Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour 1963 Behaviour Research and Therapy (journal) 1966 Assoc. for Advancement of Behaviour Therapy 1968 Journal of Applied Behaviour Analysis 1970 Behaviour Therapy (journal) 1970 Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1977 Behaviour Modification (journal) 1977 Journal of Organizational Behaviour Management 1978 The Behaviour Analyst (journal) 1978 Association for Behaviour Analysis 1980 Continued research (basic and applied) 2000’s Functional analysis approach Certification in behaviour analysis Areas of Application • Developmental disabilities • Mental illness • Education and Special Education • Rehabilitation • Community psychology • Clinical/counselling psychology Behaviour Modification Origins and Applications Chapter 2: Observing and Recording Behaviour Types of Behavioural Assessment • Behavioural Assessment • Indirect – Interviews – Que
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