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Abnormal Psychology 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 4 Clinical Assessment Procedures - Clinical assessment procedures are more or less formal ways of finding out what is wrong with a person, what may have caused the problem or problems and what steps must be taken to improve the individuals condition Reliability and Validity in Assessment Reliability - Refers to the consistency of a measurement o Inter-rater reliability the degree to which independent observers or judges agree o Test-retest reliability measures the extent to which people being observed twice or taking the same test twice, score in generally the same way Relys on the theory that people will not change between testings ex. Intelligence o Alternate-form reliability the extent to which scores on the two forms of the test are consistent o Internal consistency reliability whether the items on a test are related to one another ex. If you report a dry mouth in anxiety situation when you should report muscle tension aswell Validity - Whether a measure fulfills the intended purpose - Related to reliability unreliable measures will not have good validity - Content Validity o Refers to whether a measure adequately samples the domain of interest - Criterion validity o Is evaluated by determining whether a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure (concurrent validity) Ex. Distorted thoughts said to play a role in depression Show that the test is actually related to depression and that depressed people score higher then nondepressed people o Can be assessed by evaluating the measures ability to predict some other variable that is measured in the future (predictive validity) IQ tests developed to predict future school performance - Construct Validity o Is relevant when we interpret a test as a measure of some characteristic or construct that is not simply defined o Like anxiousness or distorted cognition that a test is trying to measure o Ex. Whether the variation we see in anxiety proneness between two people is actually due to individual difference in anxiety proneness Peoples responsiveness are determined by more variables then the construct being measured People vary in their willingness to admit to undesirable characteristics o Is evaluated by looking at a wide variety of data from multiple sources Ex. Giving them a self-report measure Would achieve validity is that people with anxiety disorders scored higher then the control group o Related to a particular theory of anxiety proneness Hypothesize that proneness is caused by childhood experiences Provide evidence for construct validity of questionnaire by showing it relates to these childhood experiences Same time gather support for our theory of proneness Construct validity Important part of theory testing Psychological Assessment - Stem from paradigms Clinical Interviews - The word interview connotes a formal, highly structured conversation o More a interpersonal encounter in which one person, uses language as the principal means of finding out about another person Characteristics - Different from a casual conversation because they pay attention to how the person answers or doesnt answer o Ex. Looking at emotion in the comments o If the person doesnt seem upset, the answers are differently understood then if they were crying - The paradigm in which an interviewer operates influences the type of info sought, how its obtained and how its interpreted o Psychoanalyst would ask about childhood Remain skeptical about verbal reports because they believe that most is repressed in the unconscious o Behavior oriented Look at environmental conditions that can be related to changes in behavior Ex. The circumstances in which they become anxious - Must obtain trust of the person, because they are not going to be willing to reveal information to another - Psychodynamic think that before people enter a clinic they are not even aware of what is bothering them - Behavioral also appareciate the difficulties people have in sorting out factors responsible for distress - Humanistic empathy techniques to accomplish this goal o An accepting attitude dispels the fear of revealing secrets of the heart - Whether the information obtained from an interview can be depended on is unclear o Teenage more likely to say yes when asked about drugs when the interviewer is less formally dressed then if they were in a suit - Vary in the degree to which they are structured o Most use vague outlines o Develop ways of asking questions to draw out information that will be the max beneficial o Reliability is low because diff interviewers can draw diff conclusions on one client They do more then one interview allows for self correction Whats valid in the first interview may not be in the 6 or 7h Structured Interviews - Assist researchers and clinicians in making diagnostic decisions- The questions are set out in a prescribed fashion - SCID is branching the response to one question determines the next question - Each question has a rating scale of three and depening on the severity you go to another specific question - Helps improve diagnostic reliability - Inter-related reliability is good are better then clinical for validity of diagnoses Psychological Tests - Used to measure a persons performance on a particular task or to assess his or her personality, thoughts, feelings and behaviour o Ex. A person may be guarded in revealing information in an interview and these tests provide a possible presence of a disorder - The same test is administered to many people at diff times and are analyzed to see how different people respond - Statistical norm is developed called standardization the responses of one person can be compared to the norm Psychological Invertories - Self report questionnaires whether certain tendencies apply to them - Clinicians provided statements that they considered indicators of disorders - Were rated as self-descriptive by clients diagnosed with disorders and normal people - Items that were more responded by one group then the other were collected - Sets of these items used as scales for determining if the person should be diagnosed in a particular way if a person responded the same way as a particular group, their behavior was to resemble that group - One important one : the Minnesota Multiphasic Personaility Inventory - A superfic
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