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Abnormal Psychology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Abnormal Psychology Chapter One - Psychopathology is the field that is concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behavior, thoughts and feelings - All of us bring to the study preconceived notions of what the subject matter is - The concepts we study of abnormal behavior must be free of the subjective feelings og appropriateness ordinarily attached to certain human phenomena What is Abnormal Behavior? - Includes such characteristics as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness Statistical Infrequency - The normal curve, or bell shaped, curve places the majority of people in the middle as far as any particular characteristic normal = does not deviate from the average in a particular trait or behaviour pattern - Sometimes not always considered abnormal ex. Having great athlectic ability is infrequent but few would regard it as abnormal - Doesnt give us a whole lot of guidance as to which infrequent behaviors should be studied Violation of Norms - Ex. The antisocial behavior of a psychopath would fit the definition of abnormal as do OCD persons rituals - But violation of norms is once too broad and too narrow - Criminals and prostitutes violate norms but would not be considered within the domain of abnormal psychology - Cultural diversity can affect how people view norms what is norm in one culture may not be in another Personal Distress - Creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it - Psychopath treats others cold and violates the law WITHOUT distress, guilt, remorse - Some forms of distress, like hunger, child birth do not belong in this field Disability or Dysfunction - Impairment in some important area of life because of an abnormality - Substance use disorders are ones that are created by substance abuse and addiction - Phobia produces distress and dysfunction a severe fear of flying may prevent someone from taking a job promotion - Ex. Transvestism is not a disability if it doesnt distress the person or being too short to be a basketball player is also not considered a disability Unexpectedness - Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected - Ex. When a person who is well off is constantly worrying about their financial situation - But hunger would be an expected response to not eating not relevant to abnormal behavior - Psychological services are vastly unused found in more urban areas then rural - Concerns regarding the merits of allowing clinical psychologists with suitable training to prescribe psychoactive drugs History of Psychopathology - All good and bad manifestations of power beyond the control of humankind storms, fires, etc- were considered supernatural - Deviancy reflected the displeasure of gods and possession of demons Early Demonology - Devil dwelling in a person controlling their body is called deamonology - In Christianity, Christ is considered to have cured a man by casting out the devils from in him and hurling them to a herd of swine Its treatment is called exorcism prayer, noisemaking, drinking terrible brews, flogging and starving to render the devils - Trepanning - surgically opening the skull way of treating conditions like epilepsy, headches and psych disorders o The evil spirits will escape through the head lesion o Suggested that trepannings were done to relieve pressure resulting from depressed fractures caused by war clubs Somatogenesis - Hippocrates rejected the Greek belief that the gods sent serious physical diseases and mental disturbances as punishment and insisted that such illnesses had natural causes and hence should be treated such as colds and constipations - Deviant thinking and behavior were indications of come brain pathology - Somotogenesis the notion that something wrong with the some, physical body, disturbs thoughts and actions - Psychogenesis the belief that disturbances has psychological origins - Three catagories of mental disorders: mania, melancholia, phrenitis (brain fever) - Different treatments from exorcism ex. Tranquility, soberity, care in choosing food, and no sex - Thought that mental health was dependant on four fluids: blood, black bile, yellow bile, a phlegm an imbalance produced disorders ex. Too much black bile was melancholia, too much blood for temperament - Received scrutiny but his belief that human behaviour is affected by bodily structures or substances and that abnormal behavior is produced by physical imbalance or even damage forshadowed contemporary thought The Dark Ages and Demonology - Death of Galen major physician led to the Dark ages - Christian monasteries replaced phycisians as healers and authorities of mental disorders - When monks cared for the mentally iss they prayed over them and touched them with relics or concocted potions for them to drink - Mentally ill became more and more disturbed The Persecutions of Witches - Witchcraft, was seen as being issued from Satan and seen as a denial of God- Pope exherted a clergy to leave no stone unturned for the search of witches - Those accused of withcraft were tortured if they did not confess, and those convicted were imprisoned for life - A persons loss of reason was a symptom of demonic possession and burning was the way of driving the devil out Witchcraft and Mental Illness - The mentally ill were considered witches - Accused said they had intercourse with the devil considered dillusions or hallucinations indicates some of them were psychotic - These confessions were usually obtained through torture more sane then insane people were tried - Withcraft not always the primary interpretation of mentally ill Holy Trinity hospital kept the mad safe until they were restored with reason confined but not considered possessed - lunacy trials determined a persons sanity o Strange behavior was linked to physical illness, injury or emotional shock - Demonacy not as big in the Middle ages as was once thought Development of Asylums th - Began in the 15 to 16 century - Leprosariums are converted into asylums refuge for the mentally ill - Took in a lot of beggars cause they were considered a huge social problem - No regimen, just to get them to work Bethlehem and other Early A
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