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Lecture 6

LECTURE 6-8.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

LECTURE 6 CHAINING How we can people to engage in behavior? You can only teach chaining when there is a kind of behavior taking place It might be necessary for people who are mentally disturbed and people who are involved in an accident Complicated tasks Using a cellphone Tieing shoe laces Knotting a tie Behavioral Chain TASK ANALYSIS -target behavior needs to be carefully reduced in to S-R segments How is it done? Three approaches Self engage-writing down the details or steps to take of the tasks Third party-record the behavior of a person engaged in a task Expert –get an expert to get a list of steps showing you on what you’re supposed to do Scenario;stuffing envelopes Sd1-brochures envelopes on table –r1 pick up brochure Sd2 brochure in hand,envelope o table-r2 puck up envelope Sd3 brochure and envelope in hand-r3 put brochure in envelope Sd4 stuffed envelope In hand LECTURE 7 UNDERSTANDING PROBLEM BEHAVIORS THROUGH FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENTS Focus on problem behaviors Examples include; nail biting and it could be a behavioral excess or deficit FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT Collection of information about the antecedents and consequences of a target behavior. What connections exists between a given a behavior and its associated antecedents and and consequences? This question attempts to explain how does that behavior link up with the environment before and after that behavior is observed? Examples of problem behaviors Tantrums, Wrist biting, hand waving, hair pulling and binge eating Informal VS formal Informal-talking about everyday understanding of your behavior or behavior of others Elements of stimulus control -time and place -presence of other people -any environmental events that precede the behavior What maintains the behavior? Types of reinforcement Alternative behavior-are there any alternative behavior that another person can engage in instead of repeating the same behavior all the time Motivational variables-factors that could influence the presence of the reinforcers for example punishment and reward Previous interventions What the consequences of target behavior? Nonsocial positive reinforcement-mediated by a person, a third party including things like attention, praise and reactions Nonsocial negative reinforcement-mediates by the third party like termination of an aversive experience, escape from tasks, activities, interactions Automatic positive reinforcement-positive reinforcement that is not mediated by a third party Occurs automatically without human intervention Example-interactions with a non social environment Automatic negative reinforcement-not mediated by a third party Termination of aversive experience Example- -relief from pain, anxiety or other aversive stimulation Self-scratching face to forget something Touching a hot stove Elicited reinforcement METHOD OF FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENTS Indirect-include interviews, questionnaires and rating scales depending on the situation Direct observation-in vivo observation or by a third party or by client themselves Occurs in the natural environment Functional analysis-the direct manipulation of anticedents and or consequences Flexible in approach APPLYING EXTINCTION How we can apply the principles of extinction in clinical problems Variations of Extinction Refer to lecture slide It can be maintained by all the extinction categories CHAPTER 8 MOOD DISORDERS Major depression disorders -person must have four symptoms to be diagnosed with this disorder -Shift in activity -Poor appetite and weight loss -Loss of energy, great fatigue -Negative self concept, feelings of worthlessness -Difficult in concentration -It’s two times more common in women th
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