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Detailed lecture 01 notes w/ graphs

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

PSYB51: Lecture 01 Early philosophy of perception Philosophy is where psychologically originate from it is fairly new science disciplined 19 century- philosophy & physiology creating psychology & psychophysics o Psychophysics are set of tools & methods major scientific tools that are used in certain areas psychology (science side) basically trying to describe phenomena in psychology in mathematical sense w accuracy Platos allegory of the cave Idea expressed in Matrix comes from Plato All humans are just like prisoners & tied to that spaces by some walls thats where they will be in their entire life they have small opening where light comes in & cast shadows and echoes this is what prisoner knows o our reality is defined (restricted) by our senses reality is limited, we dont really see all what is out there it is limited based on what we are able to perceive (based on senses) CURRENT UNDERSTANDING: perception & senses of reality are products of evolution our perception is determined by what is really important for us o importance of type of energy in the environment determines which senses have developed o e.g. plants dont have neurons dont have reflex which include having receptors w neuro-circuits w at least 2 neurons to some muscles BUT they react to some sort of stimulation for this plant only way to perceive the world is through the sense of touch important because via this they could catch fly & survive Humans have different more type of senses have different reality o E.g. animals different from humans that use different senses to navigate & survive in the world bees use ultraviolet & snakes sense body heat (infra- red) & dogs much better smell , auditory senses & birds have magnetic senses [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] Have different types of receptors (or much richer receptors in certain sensory) o Sometime- our limitations in certain senses have to do w experiences & training e.g. Ben Underwood who lost his eye-sight early in life w help & training the senses made click sound & used type of a echolocation to locate things o Summary: though there is limitations in what we perceive perhaps its not necessary or important to perceive or senses those that are outside of our capability most of what we perceive depends on events (or energy ) that changes, not what it is constant in the world & reality is restricted to things we can perceive NOT JUST THIS Something forgotten? Heraclitus philosopher (older than Plato) you can never step into same river twice... everything is always changing everything is always changing Idea that perceiver cannot perceive the same event in exactly the same manner each time experiencing because: o Experience Learning - the first event changes the way we experience the same event a second time E.g. Demo 3: (goes for adaptation as well) depending on what you learn before (mouse vs. face) you perceive differently the second time o Adaptations temporary change in receptors reduction in response caused by prior continuing stimulation (perception quickly comes to ignore anything that stays same for very long) E.g. Demo 1: reduction in color response this is an adaptation at a very low levels E.g. Demo 2: RS: if stare female face for a period of time the middle face (computation average of male& female face) seems like male OR LS: if stare male face for period of time the middle face seems like [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]
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