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Lecture 11


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

What are formants? We have certain frequencies withiin speech sounds that have more energy they are formants. They will help us identify speech. Vocal tract modifies sound to create formants. Formants helps us tell diff sounds apart, it’s the timbre peaks, they are a bar code of the sound relationship between them and distance between them will tell us about diff sounds Lec 11 Final exam: cumulative for mc questions. Cpl questions from each lecture -short answer are from specific lectures Touch -proprioperception: sensation under the skin -touch: on skin -somatosensation: sensory signals from body -receptors can be classified according to 3 dimension: type of stimulation (ex mechanostimulation), size of receptive field, and rate of adaptation (how quickly do the receptors stop firing adapts it will stop firing) -mechano touch receptors: -mesmer and merkel have small receptive fields (german I) -pacinian and ruffini are large (Italian II) -fa is faast adapting -adapts quickly is sensitive to small changes -highest touch sensation can perceive is 700hz -receptive fields are so large, doesn’t have precise adaptation not as sensitive -kinesthetic: not in the skin, they are in muscles tendons.. -muscle spindles, when you try to trick them they involve vibrators, brain thinks biceps are strectching when vibrating and holding nose, brain interprets as if your nose is growing -tendon proprioreceptors and spindles and also in the joints -2 sets of thermoreceptos, code cold info and warm info -same temp as the body, thermoreceptors will stop to fire -nociceptors: transmit info about noxious stimulation that can cause damage to the skin -a delta fibbers: strong pressure heat myelinated so they transmit faster -c fibers: pressure heat cold but unmyelinated so transmit messages slower ex: put your hand on a hot plate reaction takes a second -hansens disease have a reduce perception of pain -pathways run through the spinal nerves in spinal cord Spinothalamic: synapses multiple times, its fairly slower because there are delays. Conveys info about nociceptors and thermoreceptors -why code pain info in spinothalamic when its slow? Pain info Is processed quickly locally, reflex that runs through spinal cord, it doesn’t go all the way to the brain -DCML: faster has fewer synapses -all sense run through thalamus (vision; LGN audition: mgn touch ventral posterior nucleus) -possible wit lesion to spinal cord can lose ability to sense touch in your body, if you don’t have touch info, how do you know your hand is moving? You can sense it through temperature which doesn’t run down the same pathway -homonculus: if the size of the brain was proportion to the sensory areas, if we created the body according to the size of cerebral cortex associated with sensitivity -larger cortex of brain means its more sensitive -you get more information from the larger cerebral areas, more acute sensation -primary somatosensory area takes up most of the cerebral cortex Phantom limb: if you lose a limb you have cortical reorganization in S1, the piece of cortex that is associate with the loss limb will help code info in other parts of the body. But the neurons never lose info about the actions that they coded -residual wiring in S1 keeps the memory of the missing limb -when you lose a limb you can still sometimes feel it there, happens a lot when you touch the stump or face or cheek, have sensation of the limb being back there -but sometimes it may feel painful, like your feeling pain/cramp in that limb that’s not there -so it can be a problem with people who lose limbs feel pain that they cant relieve Pain -have an injury while playing a sport might not notice the pain there is decrease sensation body active blocking pain sensation endogenous opiates are secreted and do this block perception -analgesia: decreasing of pain perception durin conscious experience -how itch helps itch -gate control theory: structure in spinal cord entry point (substantial gelatinosa) works like gate neurons -they modulate the SG inhibit the tranimission system, you can undo the perception of pain ex: like if you hit your head you hold it to reduce the pain. We modulate the SG -pain is associated with negative response, emotional response observed by diff areas in the brain than the physical aspect of it -anterior cingulated negative emotional aspect of pain Tactile sensitivity and acuity -von fry hair: use diff hairs and same amount of pressure is applied to diff areas of skin indicates the thresholds of diff areas, ex on lips more sesnsitive to thinner hairs than on back -can also look at special resoluciton to detect tactile sensitivity -weber 2 point touch threshold: distance between 2 stimuli when they are appeared to be 2 separate stimuli -closer harder to tell diff but depends on receptive field ex fingers have fine spatial acuitt -2pt can predict wat homonculous is like -spatial acuity depends on number of receptors, the size of rece
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